Glycerol, fatty acids

Lipase (enteric)

Brush border of the small intestine


Glycerol, fatty acids


Brush border of the small intestine


Nucleosides, phosphate


Brush border of the small intestine


Purines, pyrimides, pentose


Brush border of the small intestine

Organic phosphates

Free phosphates


Brush border of the small intestine

Acidic-alkaline (5.0-7.0)

Alkaline (8.6)

"The food is not grouped together (eg, all fat, all proteins, etc), instead the food is placed in an order that follows the sequence of digestion along the duodenum to jejunum. This attempts to present the digestive enzymes in their expected sequence of action.

Table 2. Characteristics of Coenzymes That Transfer Hydrogens

Enzyme system Coenzyme Vitamin component Nonvitamin component

Dehydrogenase Flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) Riboflavin (vitamin B2) Adenine, ribose, phosphate

Dehydrogenase Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) Niacin Adenine, ribose, phosphate

Part of dehydrogenase Lipoic acid (thiotic acid) None Lipoic acid

Respiratory chain Coenzyme Q None Quinone (vitamin E-related substance)

Table 3. Characteristics of Coenzymes That Transfer Nonhydrogen Groups

Enzyme system


Vitamin component

Nonvitamin component

Transaminases, decarboxylase Part of dehydrogenase Dehydrogenase Cocarboxylase

(decarboxylase, transketolase) Methyl transferase Transmethylase Carboxylase

Pyridoxal phosphate Lipoic acid (lipoamide) Coenzyme A

Thiamin pyrophosphate 5-Methyltetrahydrofolate Coenzyme B12 Carboxyl-biotin complex

Vitamin B6 None

Pantothenic acid

Thiamin Folic acid Vitamin B12 Biotin


Lipolic acid

/¿-Mercaptoethylamine, adenine, ribose, phosphate

Phosphate None

Adenine, ribose None cule is considered the energy powerhouse of the body. It releases its energy in the following reactions:

ATP + H20 = ADP + P + 7.5 kcal ADP + H20 = AMP + P + 7.5 kcal where ATP = adenosine diphosphate, P = inorganic phosphate, and AMP = adenosine monophosphate. Theoretically, the conversion of 1 mol of ATP to AMP can produce 15 kcal. However, within the body ATP is normally changed only to ADP when energy is needed. The energy released from this process can be used for such work as organ building, heartbeat, transportation across cell membranes, and muscle contraction. Sometimes these compounds are called active phosphate carriers and dischargers. Figure 4 summarizes the role of ATP in body energy and metabolism.

Energy Stored in Creatine Phosphate, or Phosphocreatine.

Creatine phosphate is another energy-rich phosphate compound found in muscle. It can contribute to muscle energy metabolism in two ways:

creatine phosphate + H20 = creatine + P + 7.5 kcal

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