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Soy Milk. In the traditional Chinese process, soybeans are soaked in water, ground into a slurry, cooked, and filtered to remove the insoluble cell wall and hull fractions. A number of process modifications have been made since the early 1960s, including a heat treatment before or during grinding to inactivate the enzyme lipoxygenase and thus prevent formation of grassy and beany flavors. Markets for the blander products made by the new processes

Defatted flakes

Clarified Water and extract

Food-grade

Wash tank

Water and_t alkali | f

Clarified Water and extract

Food-grade

Wash tank

Sodium soy proteinate

Dispersion tank

Dispersion tank

Sodium soy proteinate

Figure 6. Schematic outline for manufacture of soybean protein isolates.

have developed rapidly in Japan since the late 1970s. Some of the products are sweetened and flavored; fermented (yogurtlike) soy milks are also available in Japan and other parts of Asia.

Tofu. Tofu is prepared by adding a coagulant such as calcium sulfate to soy milk to precipitate the protein and oil into a gelatinous curd. The curd is then separated from the soluble portion (whey), pressed, and washed to yield a market-ready product that is a traditional food in Japan and throughout Asia. It has become popular in the United States since the late 1970s and was produced in 1981 by more than 150 shops.

Miso. Miso is a pastelike food that resembles peanut butter in consistency and is made by fermenting cooked soybeans and salt with or without a cereal such as rice or barley. It is used as a base for soups and is consumed in Japan, China, Indochina, Indonesia, and the East Indies. In 1990, it was produced by ca 20 small establishments in the United States.

Tempeh. Cooked dehulled beans are inoculated with the mold Rhizopus oligosporus and allowed to ferment for 24 h. The mold mycellium binds the soybean cotyledons together. When sliced and deep fried in fat, the product is crisp and golden brown. Tempeh, a traditional food of Indonesia, was made by more than 30 concerns in the United States in 1981.

Soy Sauce. This condiment, well known to U.S. consumers, is made by fermentation or acid hydrolysis. In the fermentation process, cooked soybeans or defatted soybean meal are mixed with roasted wheat and the mixture is blended with a pure culture of Aspergillus oryzae. Brine is added and the mixture is allowed to ferment 6-8 months. The product is then filtered and pasteurized. In the acid hydrolysis process, defatted soybean flour is refluxed with hydrochloric acid until the proteins are hydrolyzed. The hydrolysate is then filtered, neutralized, and bottled.

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