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creaminess or chewiness). The vegetable proteins simply do not function as milk proteins without further modifications, and these developments remain in the laboratory. However, some soybean protein isolates have been used as an extender in cheese analogues to replace up to 30% of the casein.

Vegetable Fats

Fats are essential ingredients in cheese analogues, for they are replacing butterfat in the products. The fats utilized become emulsified and intermixed with protein and water and, therefore, contribute to melting and textural characteristics. The fats also must behave in the mouth something like butterfat, which does melt in a characteristic way and influences creaminess, flavor, and other factors. Consequently, fats most often utilized in cheese analogues are partially hydrogenated or mixtures of hydrogenated and unhydrogenated oils that stimulate butterfat. These fats are similar to vegetable shortenings and can be made from soybean, corn, cottonseed, palm, or coconut oils or blends of these oils. These blends often have a melting point of about 35-47°C (33).

Table 6. Ingredients in Cheese Analogues

Kraft Golden Image Imitation Cheddar Cheese

Kraft Lunchwagon Imitation Pasteurized Process Cheese

American Whipped Products King Smoothee Imitation Cream Cheese

Pasteurized part-skim milk Liquid and partially hydrogenated corn oil

Cheese culture Salt

Enzymes

Apocarotenal (color) Vitamin A palmitate

Whey

Partially hydrogenated soybean oil

Sodium caseinate Granular cheese Food starch, modified Sodium citrate Monodiglycerides Potassium chloride Sorbic acid as a preservative Magnesium oxide Zinc oxide Vitamin B12 Apocarotenal (color) Vitamin A palmitate Calcium pantothenate Riboflavin

Water

Partially hydrogenated vegetable oil (may contain one or more of the following: coconut oil, soybean oil, corn oil) Corn syrup solids Sodium caseinate Tapioca flour Monodiglycerides Salt

Lactic acid Guar gum

Monopotassium phosphate Artificial flavor Citric acid Carageenan Artificial color

Sorbic acid (as a preservative)

Table 8. Cheese Analogues Characteristics

Advantages Disadvantages

Cost of raw materials Flavor

Keeping quality No U.S. large sources of casein

Nutritional equivalency or Unnatural image superiority Varying functional properties

Other Ingredients

The principal ingredients in cheese analogues are protein, fat, and water. Thereafter, ingredients are added to solu-bilize the protein, add flavor and color, and provide nutritional supplements. A typical formula for an imitation pasteurized process American cheese is presented below (34).

Water

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It is a well known fact that homemade food is always a healthier option for pets when compared to the market packed food. The increasing hazards to the health of the pets have made pet owners stick to containment of commercial pet food. The basic fundamentals of health for human beings are applicable for pets also.

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