Ester, g/100 L

dairy, poultry, and swine formula feeds. Distillers' feeds are rich in proteins (24-35%), fat (8%), choline, niacin, and other B-complex vitamins and contain vital fermentation growth factors that produce good growth responses in livestock and poultry.


In the United States, the final phase of the whisky production process, called maturation, is the storage of beverage spirits (which at this point are colorless and rather pungent in taste) in new, white oak barrels, whose staves and headings are charred. The duration (years) of storage in the barrel depends on the time it takes a particular whisky to attain the desirable ripeness or maturity. The staves of the barrel may vary in thickness from 2 to 2.85 m. The outside dimensions of a 190-L (50-gal) barrel are approximately: height, 0.88 m (34.5 in.) and diameter at the head, 0.54 m. Whisky storage warehouses vary in construction from brick and mortar types, single and multiple floors (as many as six) having capacities up to 100,000 barrels of 190-L (50-gal) capacity, to wooden sheet-metal-covered buildings (called iron clads), generally not exceeding a capacity of 30,000 barrels of 190-L (50-gal) capacity. It is customary to provide natural ventilation. The whisky in storage is subject to critical factors that determine the character of the final product. The thickness of the stave, depth of the char (controlled by regulating the duration of the firing, 30-50 s), temperature and humidity, entry proof, and, finally, the length of storage impart definite and intended changes in the aromatic and taste characteristics of a whisky. These changes are caused by three types of reaction occurring simultaneously and continually in the barrel: (1) extraction of complex wood constituents by the liquid, (2) oxidation of components originally in the liquid and of material extracted from the wood, and (3) reaction between the various organic substances present in the liquid, leading to the formation of new congeners.

Comprehensive studies of changes occurring during the maturation of whisky have been published by a number of investigators (4-11). Although these reports contain detailed information on the concentration of various congeners throughout the course of the maturation period, little is revealed of the interrelationships between various congeners except for the nonvolatile groups, such as solids, nonvolatile acids, tannin, and color. Notable among the observed changes are increases in the concentrations of acids, esters, and solids. These studies reveal that throughout the maturation period a linear relationship exists between the increase in acids and esters and the increase in dissolved solids; this suggests that acid and ester formation is dependent on some precursor that is extracted from the barrel at the same rate as the bulk of the solid fraction (9).

From condenser

Homemade Pet Food Secrets

Homemade Pet Food Secrets

It is a well known fact that homemade food is always a healthier option for pets when compared to the market packed food. The increasing hazards to the health of the pets have made pet owners stick to containment of commercial pet food. The basic fundamentals of health for human beings are applicable for pets also.

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