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"10.0% (w/v) for FPA. 610.0% (w/v) for FPA. c10.0% (w/v) for FPA. d25.5% (w/v) for FPA. e10.0% (w/v) for FPA 13.0% (w/v) for FPA.

"10.0% (w/v) for FPA. 610.0% (w/v) for FPA. c10.0% (w/v) for FPA. d25.5% (w/v) for FPA. e10.0% (w/v) for FPA 13.0% (w/v) for FPA.

with respect to sucrose reference concentration and application. Pure maltitol was first described as a sweetener for reduced-calorie foods by Mitsuhashi and coworkers of Hy-ashibara Company in 1973 (78). Crystalline maltitol is known principally under the Hyashibara brand name Malbit®. Maltitol is currently approved for food applications in Denmark, Norway, Finland, the United Kingdom, Switzerland, Sweden, Belgium, France, Austria, and Italy. A GRAS affirmation petition was filed with the FDA by Towa Chemical Industry Company in 1986. Commercial development of maltitol as a food ingredient in the United States awaits action on this petition. The historical development, physical properties, safety assessment studies, metabolism, and food applications studies on maltitol have been comprehensively reviewed and will not be discussed further here (79,80). Particularly relevant to the present discussion, however, are bioavailable calorie content and laxative effects. Substantial controversy has developed over the bioavailable calorie issue, and it is unlikely that an absolute number of calories per gram will ever be agreed on. Arguments on this subject have been summarized by Secard and LeBot (81). As a result of a consideration of the rates of cleavage and absorption in all regions of the gastrointestinal tract, Ziesenitz and Siebert suggest that a value of 2.4 cal/g may be approximately correct (82). The generally accepted bioavailable calorie content in the United States, however, is 3.0 cal/g. Thus, for maltitol, only an approximate 25% reduction in calories may be possible relative to fully nutritive carbohydrate sweeteners. Ziesenitz and Siebert also indicate the intestinal discomfort (lax-ation, flatulence, etc) experienced from maltitol to be relatively mild.

Lactitol

Lactitol is a disaccharide alcohol of structure 12. It is obtained commercially by the hydrogenation of lactose (milk sugar), which is available in quantity as a byproduct of the dairy industry. Lactitol exhibits a sweetness potency that varies only slightly with sucrose reference concentration; Pw(2) = 0.30 and Pw(8) = 0.39 have been reported in a general review on this sweetener (83). Lactitol has been commercially developed by CCA Biochem of The Netherlands and is known under the brand name Lacty®. Lactitol was affirmed as GRAS in the United States in 1993. In an attempt to understand the bioavailable calorie content of lactitol, studies have been conducted on the rate of lactitol cleavage in the small intestine. In comparison to lactose and isomaltose, the cleavage rate was sharply reduced. Thus, lactitol passes largely unchanged into the large intestine. Anaerobic microbial fermentation at this point converts it into organic acids and gases. The organic acids are, in part, absorbed by the host as an energy source. In general, after review of the results of many animal and human studies, it is accepted that lactitol has a bioavailable calorie content of approximately 2.0 cal/g. According to Ziesenitz and Siebert, the intestinal discomfort to be expected from lactitol is high (82).

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