Info

Note: Percent of fresh weight: mean (range). Source: Ref. 5.

Note: Percent of fresh weight: mean (range). Source: Ref. 5.

ase or isoamylase [amylo-l,6-glucosidase]) is used to convert native or acid-thinned starch to a solution that is as close to 100% D-glucose as can be obtained (6,7,10). A heat-stable «-amylase is generally used for the initial breakdown (liquefaction) of a native starch paste, which is performed at 80 to 95°C (185-205°F). The resulting glucose solution can be concentrated to a syrup and is the source of crystalline glucose (6,7).

The glucose solution is then treated with an immobilized enzyme commonly known as glucose isomerase (6,7) to convert a portion of the glucose into fructose, that is, to achieve thermodynamic equilibrium. An HFCS containing 42% fructose, 53% glucose, and 5% maltooligosaccharides is prepared in this way. Using an industrial-scale chromatographic separation, fructose pure enough for crystallization (ca 90%) is obtained. By blending a 42% fructose solution with a 90% fructose solution, a 55% fructose (41% glucose and 5% maltooligosaccharides) solution is obtained. In the U.S. soft drink industry, 55% fructose syrup, designated HFCS-55 (HF-55), is the main nutritive sweetener used; some 42% fructose syrups are also used. HFCS-55 has a sweetness ca 1.2 times that of sucrose; therefore, less HFCS, as compared to sucrose, is required to give equivalent sweetness, resulting in products with fewer calories. HFCS is used in many other food, confectionery, and beverage products, including soft cookies, where its hu-mectancy and noncrystallizability are important; other baked goods; salad dressings; pickle products; catsup; table syrups; canned and frozen fruits; desserts; soft chewy candies; and granola bars. HFCS is easy to blend, store, and ship.

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