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Figure 15. Brewhouse control panels. Source: Courtesy of Wittemann Hasselberg.

adding the contents of the boiling cooker. The combined mash is allowed to rest at the temperature that results from this mixing for a variable time, and then the temperature is raised selectively until the final mashing off temperature, usually 75°C, is reached.

In the United Kingdom and its brewing satellites the most common mashing system is a simple infusion method. In this system, the mashing process takes place at a single temperature. This system developed with mash tubs that could not be heated. It is not nearly as versatile as the double-mash system. Mashing, with or without corn or rice, boiled separately in a small vessel, takes place at about 65°C.

In Germany, and its brewing followers, still a third system, called decoction brewing, is common. Here too the mash tub cannot be heated, but a smaller decoction vessel can. The malt is transferred into the mash tub at a low temperature. A small portion of this mash is pumped to the decoction vessel and boiled. The boiled mash is pumped back into the main mash vessel. This serves to raise its temperature to a level that depends on the relative volumes in both vessels. This transfer is repeated once or twice (double decoction or triple decoction), leading to a series of rising temperatures in the mash tub. This process is rather lengthy and has not found wide use.

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Homemade Pet Food Secrets

Homemade Pet Food Secrets

It is a well known fact that homemade food is always a healthier option for pets when compared to the market packed food. The increasing hazards to the health of the pets have made pet owners stick to containment of commercial pet food. The basic fundamentals of health for human beings are applicable for pets also.

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