Table 6. Lactose

Product class

Performance requirement



Component Low sweetness, reduction of water activity, enhanced browning.

Promotion of calcium and phosphorus absorption (especially in infant feeding), dispersing agent Modified Sweet syrup

Transformed New materials

Concentration crystallization and 55,56,57,59 particle size control

Hydrolysis by lactase, 13,60


Various 55,61

completely safe manner that would provide an alternative to the use of antimicrobial agents.

Natural antibodies are also present in very low concentration in unprocessed milk, but traditional procedures have resulted in their inactivation. Procedures are now available that allow for preparation of protein products having biological activity, and there is evidence that disease control is achievable (62). Currently these products are targeted toward the problems of animal health. Scientific enquiry is targeted toward the improvement of human health. Wide-ranging implications for a new range of foods that have physiological functions exist and may provide a new wave of the future (63,64).

The recognition of the value of calcium naturally present in milk and cheese in meeting the nutritional needs of aging people, particularly women, has resulted in a demand for pure mineral ingredients of natural origin, fine particle size, and clean flavor. The natural calcium content of milk is being recovered by precipitation processes for direct incorporation into foods (Table 7).

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