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tration of various congener groups. These concentrates reacted to form chemical derivatives that were then subjected to further separation. Paper and column chromatography have been used extensively for this work. After separation of the components, identification is possible by infrared and mass spectrometry.

With the high sensitivity (flame and /i-ray ionization detection) and efficiency offered by gas chromatographic techniques, a qualitative profile of alcoholic distillates can be obtained without prior treatment of the sample. Flame ionization uses a hydrogen flame for the combustion of organic substances to produce electrons and negative ions, which are collected on an anode. The resulting electrical current is proportional to the amount of material burned. yS-Ray ionization uses beta particles emitted from a source such as strontium-90 to ionize the carrier gas and its com ponents. The measure of the electrical current resulting from the collection of electrons on the anode is used in the determination or detection of the substance. This may augment sensory evaluations. A positive identification of the separated congeners can be made by infrared and mass spectrometers. Nmr may offer possibilities in the identification of congeners present in alcoholic beverages.

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