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ufactured from materials such as trimmings, skin, fat, and mechanically deboned poultry (mdp). The basic difference between a poultry roll and a poultry bologna is that the bologna sausage contains curing salt and is finely emulsified (20). Poultry rolls normally have a certain ratio of fine meat emulsion to meat chunks.

It is important to create an even color appearance within the roll, ie, the color of the surrounding fine emulsion must match the color of the meat chunks. To obtain this even and white color, it is recommended that milk proteins be used in both basic components: part in the fine emulsion and part mixed into the meat chunks.

Some chicken or turkey bolognas are made from 100% mechanically deboned poultry. From a technologic point of view the poultry meat emulsion is not very different from the red meat emulsion. Sometimes poultry bolognas can have a dry mouthfeel. This can be corrected by the addition of approximately 10% chicken skin/fat emulsion. Such a pre-emulsion is made of 1 part milk protein (sodium caseinate), 5 parts chicken skin, 5 parts chicken fat, 6 parts water, and 2 parts ice.

Without the assistance of such a prestabilized fat/skin emulsion, fatting out often occurs when the total fat content reaches 20% or higher. The addition of milk protein as a dry powder to such products (addition level generally between 1.0 and 1.5%) improves the consistency of the final product as well; generally firmer and better sliceable products are obtained.

Chicken Nuggets and Patties

Since their introduction in the early 1980s, these poultry items have become very popular. Initially, a chicken nugget was a solid piece of slightly marinated breast meat that was battered and breaded (20).

Increased demand has forced the poultry processor to use such parts as thigh meat, trimming, mechanically de-boned meat, and chicken skin. The target in combining all these ingredients in a nugget or a patty is to reach the appearance, flavor, and bite of the original product as closely as possible. Important in the stabilization of the final product is the binding of the meat pieces, the water holding capacity, and the stability of the fat.

Again, some basic rules in meat technology are very important: for optimal binding of the meat pieces, it is necessary to grind the meat before use; this creates relatively small meat pieces with a large surface area. During the mixing stage, when salt and phosphates are added, it is important that sufficient meat proteins are extracted and become hydrated in the continuous phase (28-30). On frying, this continuous phase will gellify and cement the meat pieces together. When milk protein is being used in these systems, they boost the meat protein gelation, resulting in higher yields and better consistency of the final products.

Products based on lean meat exclusively tend to be dry and tough after frying. By incorporation of prestabilized chicken fat/skin emulsion (usually 10%), flavor, consistency, and juiciness can be improved.

Whole Muscle Poultry Products

One of the most popular food items in this group of poultry products is breast of turkey. Essentially the manufacturing process comes very close to the production process of reformed hams. Important differences are: lower injection levels are applied (up to 25%); lower salt concentrations are being used; no curing ingredients are being used, because a white color is desired; and the tumbling process is generally much shorter and less intense than that practiced in ham manufacture.

For the production of breast of turkey both milk protein (type sodium caseinate) and milk protein concentrates are used frequently. Usage levels vary from 0.8 to 1.5% (calculated on the final product). Yield increases from 3.0 to 6.0% can be reached. At the same time the consistency, binding, and sliceability of the product are improved. One of the most important characteristics of milk proteins in comparison to, eg, carbohydrate-based stabilizers is the fact that milk proteins do not affect the original flavor and palatability of the final product.

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