Ingredients

For the formulation and manufacture of Halal products, special consideration should be given to the following ingredients (6):

Alcohol: Ethyl alcohol is an intoxicant and is prohibited as such. Many liquid flavors, such as natural vanilla, contain alcohol to satisfy U.S. legal requirements. Use of alcohol in the food and flavor industries is quite common for a number of technical reasons, such as flavor extraction and standardization, ingredient precipitation, or use as a solvent. Although Halal production permits the use of synthetic or grain alcohol in their manufacture, it would be prudent for manufacturers to minimize the levels of alcohol present in the final products through evaporation or other methods. Though there is a small allowance for industrial alcohol, the tolerance is zero for grape wine and other liquors, both in manufacturing and the food-service industries. Many Muslim countries have set up quite elaborate analytical laboratories to test for alcohol in products at their points of entry.

Gelatin: Gelatin is generally made from pork skins, cattle bones, calf or cattle skins, or fish skins. Generally product labels make no mention of the source of gelatin. For Halal products, gelatin must not be porcine. Fish gelatin is Halal, and gelatin from cattle and calves is considered Halal when the animals are slaughtered by Muslims.

Lard: Lard is pork fat and is prohibited to Muslims. Products for Muslim markets must not be formulated with lard.

Enzymes: Enzymes can be from animals, plants, or microbes or produced through biotechnology. The use of enzymes is common in the manufacture of cheese and other foods. Use of porcine enzymes is not permitted in the manufacture of Halal foods. The use of enzymes extracted from animals that are not slaughtered by Muslims is also discouraged by most Muslim countries. Enzymes from plants, microbial sources, and biotech sources are generally considered Halal (see "Ingredients from Biotechnology").

Emulsifiers: Emulsifiers such as mono- and di-glycer-ides are made from vegetable oils, beef fat, or lard. Since vegetable mono- and di-glycerides are readily available, emulsifiers from beef fat which are Mashbooh and from lard which are Haram can easily be avoided by the food manufacturers.

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