Iu

65 meg

Table 12. Fortified Food Groups

Food

Vitamin

Use level

Remarks

Milk

Beverages(noncarbonated)

Cereals

Flour Margarine

Miscellaneous foods (eg, instant breakfast, energy bars, etc)

Vitamin D Vitamin C

420 IU/L

15-100% of US RDI per serving

Most essential vitamins 25-100% of US RDI per serving

Thiamin, riboflavin, niacin Vitamin A

Most essential vitamins

8-15% of US RDI per 2-oz serving 33,100 IU per kilogram

Optional but generally added Optional; also added as an antioxidant Optional; added to 90% of cold cereals Mandatory

Optional, but generally added Added to position food as complete meal replacement usually measured in International Units (IU). The water-soluble group is usually measured in units of weight.

Thirteen vitamins are recognized as essential for human health, and deficiency diseases occur if any one is lacking. Because the human body cannot synthesize most vitamins, they must be added to the diet. Most vitamins are currently consumed as pharmaceutical preparations, or over-the-counter vitamin supplements. Some, like vitamins B, C, D, and E, however, are added directly to food products (Table 12). Ready-to-eat breakfast cereals are a successful example of fortification. Because the primary use of these cereals is as a complete breakfast entree, they are commonly formulated to provide 25% or more of the Daily Value (% DV) per serving of 10 to 12 important vitamins and minerals common to cereals.

Vitamins are added to processed foods for several related reasons:

• To restore vital nutrients lost during processing; this is important with dried milk, dehydrated vegetables, canned foods, and refined and processed foods

• To standardize nutrient levels in foods when they fluctuate because of seasonal variations, soil differences, and methods of preparation

• To fortify fabricated foods that are low in nutrients and promoted as substitutes for traditional products; this includes complete breakfasts, breakfast drinks, meat extenders, and imitation products such as eggs, milk, cheese, and ice cream

• To fortify a major staple, such as bread, with a nutrient known to be in short supply

• For the preparation of designer food (nutraceuticals) containing vitamins that are shown to be useful in preventing chronic diseases.

In addition, vitamins may be used as functional ingredients in foods. Vitamin E (tocopherol) and vitamin C (ascorbic acid) protect foods by serving as antioxidants to inhibit the destructive effects of oxygen. This helps protect the nutritive value, flavor, and color of food products. In addition, ascorbic acid enhances the baking quality of breads, increases the clarity of wine and beer, and aids color development and inhibition of nitrosamine formation in cured meat products. Beta-carotene and f}-apo-8'-carotenal are vitamin A precursors, which are brightly pigmented and may be added to foods such as margarine and cheese to enhance their appearance. The roles of these substances outside their nutritional functions are discussed elsewhere in this article (see the sections "Antioxidants," "Preservatives," and "Colorants").

Water-Correcting Agents

Water used in the brewing industry is often corrected to a uniform mineral salt content that corresponds to water known to give the most satisfactory final product. A wide variety of salts are used for this purpose, including mono-and diammonium phosphates, calcium chloride, calcium hydroxide, calcium oxide, calcium dihydrogen phosphate, calcium sulfate, magnesium sulfate, potassium aluminum sulfate, potassium chloride, potassium sulfate, sodium bisulfate, and mono-, di-, and trisodium phosphates. Some of the chemicals, in addition to standardizing the salt content, also control the acidity, thus providing uniform conditions for yeast fermentation.

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