The activity of an enzyme is determined by many factors, including enzyme, substrate, and cofactor concentrations; ionic strength; pH; and temperature. For conversion of substrate (S) to product (P) by an enzyme (E) the reaction scheme can be simply represented as

where ES is the enzyme-substrate complex, Ks is the dissociation constant, and Kcat is the turnover number/rate constant for the breakdown of ES.

The initial reaction velocity (V) is then given by the Michaelis-Menton equation

where Km is the substrate concentration at which V equals one-half the maximum velocity (Fmax)- Integration of the equation with respect to time gives

where S and St are the substrate concentrations at zero time and time t, respectively. This equation is particularly useful in industrial situations where a reaction is allowed to proceed to near completion or equilibrium.

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