Limonin

One of the most characteristic flavor attributes associated with grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf) juice is bitterness. This is a quality factor that, present in a moderate degree, is responsible for much of the bite or zestiness of the juice. This bite or zestiness is expected and appreciated by many grapefruit juice consumers. However, if present at too high a level, excess bitterness will result in low approval ratings from even people who like grapefruit juice. Bitterness is also one of the chief reasons why most consumers dislike the overall flavor of grapefruit juice (1-6), with only about 29% of all U.S. households purchasing grapefruit juice in 1983 (7). The two major constituents in grapefruit juice responsible for bitterness are limonin and naringin. Of the two, limonin is considered to be the more significant contributor. This may be because bitterness due to limonin is perceived sooner and lingers longer than bitterness from naringin (8).

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