Live Holding

North American lobsters, European lobsters, spiny lobsters, and large Norway lobsters may be held live onboard commercial fishing vessels (37-39). Spiny lobsters and some Norway lobsters are usually frozen before distribution (13,19,40,41). However, the vast majority of North American and European lobsters are sold live (at the retail level) (13,41). Several systems may be used to hold live lobsters (19,41,42). For example, at the first tier of distri bution, the systems range from inexpensive tidal ponds with little control over the conditions to Clearwater Fine Food's $13.5 million facility at Arachat, Nova Scotia, which holds 1.5 million lb of lobsters, with each lobster in its own environmentally controlled compartment (26). Individual compartments prevent disease and cannibalism, while controlled environmental systems promote hibernation and reduce the need for food (26). Apart from storing the animals, live holding also allows for the depuration of taint from lobster meat (43).

Regardless of the system used to hold North American and European lobsters live, one should always (1) check animals daily and remove weak or damaged lobsters; (2) turn over stock on a rotating system; (3) avoid toxic material in construction and operation; (4) band or tie claws securely; (5) check salinity and temperature regularly; (6) keep water temperature at 4.5 to 10°C; (7) change water frequently or use an efficient filter system; (8) keep tanks shaded and away from bright lights; (9) when preparing artificial seawater, use correct weight and chemical composition; and (10) where possible, keep lobsters in a single layer (41). In contrast, regardless of the system used to hold North American and European lobsters live, one should never (1) attempt to store soft, weak, or damaged lobsters; (2) handle lobsters roughly; (3) feed lobsters in tanks, which creates more problems than it solves; (4) cut or peg claws to prevent fighting; (5) cause sudden changes in temperature or salinity; (6) expose lobsters to extremes of temperatures; (7) overload storage systems; or (8) overfill tanks with water, because shallow water is adequate (41).

Homemade Pet Food Secrets

Homemade Pet Food Secrets

It is a well known fact that homemade food is always a healthier option for pets when compared to the market packed food. The increasing hazards to the health of the pets have made pet owners stick to containment of commercial pet food. The basic fundamentals of health for human beings are applicable for pets also.

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