Machine Vision Systems Process And Quality Control

Many processes and inspection systems in manufacturing operations were done manually until the early 1980s, when the normalized grayscale correlation (NGC) was adapted to vision systems. With the introduction of new technologies, increased emphasis on improved production quotas, labor costs and shortages, and the introduction of new products such as computer chips, the need to develop the machine vision system (MVS) for processing and quality/inspection of components or whole products was necessary. Machine vision has an additional advantage in that it can provide 100% inspection.

This powerful system can be compared to the human vision system (Fig. 1) in that it uses a lens (eye) with proper illumination that sends a signal (optic nerve) to a computer (brain) that analyzes the image and sends information to a controller (arm) that then proceeds with a programmed task.

MVS offers many advantages over manual and mechanical systems:

1. Accuracy and precision

2. Automation

3. Better quality

4. Improved production

5. Higher throughput

Machine vision may be defined as "the mechanism of gathering information optically, quickly and nondestructively to control machines or processes" (1). Others define it as "the automatic acquisition of images by noncontact means and their automatic analysis to extract needed data for controlling a process or activity" (2).

Vision system

Controller

Controller

Vision system

Action

To understand MVS, we have to look at its components and how they work; applications; and functions and types of MVS, including descriptions of hardware, software, and future developments.

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