Marketing Implications

Any research and development technologist should be aware of the marketing implications related to the color of a food as they affect product development and quality control. The technologist must bear in mind that it is what is perceived by the consuming public that controls sales not necessarily the truth of the perception.

A 1985 survey conducted by Good Housekeeping magazine, asked respondents to indicate whether nutrition or appetite appeal was the more-important selection criterion for food purchases; 45% stated appetite appeal (26). Color certainly plays a considerable role in appetite appeal and this is one reason that foods are colored. Yet some consumers consider the addition of color as perpetrating deception and in Europe there have been attempts to ban the use of colorants (17). It has been reported that the lack of artificial colorings and the 3presence of natural color rank high as positive food attributes, whereas the use of artificial color was ranked as negative (26). However, 35-40% of respondents considered artificial color as somewhat acceptable. More than 50% of the respondents considered coal tar color derivatives to be unacceptable. Apparently, the use of colorants for cosmetic reasons, once considered to enhance acceptability, may now be a detractor because of the pressure to reduce the use of additives in processed foods as a result of prevailing consumer attitudes and safety concerns. It should also be remembered that experiences change over time and that this influences acceptability. The combination of experience and prevailing consumer concerns can combine to bring about changes in acceptability. The Spy variety of apple was once prized as a cooking apple but it has gradually been superseded by other varieties for processing and retail sales. When cooked, the Spy apple produces a very intense yellow color. This bright yellow color is less preferred by today's consumers than the duller browner color of the cooked product of more familiar varieties. Part of this is undoubtedly that the intense color is unexpected and unfamiliar but the lower preference may also result from the fact that the intense yellow, although natural, has become suspect.

Although within the marketing profession there has been much exploration of the effects of color, particularly in the packaging, on the sales of food products, little research of this nature has been published. Package design and color are important factors in attracting a buyer at the point of purchase. That packaging becomes part of a familiar product has been witnessed by any shopper who has had to search for an often-purchased product because the color of the package has been changed. Marketers are concerned about product image and thus both the product and the package must contribute to this image. Both can become dated and in an industry that experiences a short life for many of its products this can be of concern for the long-lived products. Black has not generally been considered a desirable color for food packages but with the popularity of art deco design, sophisticated black packages and labels are beginning to appear. Marketers are quick to take advantage of color association with consumer concerns such as that of green with environmental concerns. One Canadian food retailer has capitalized on this to develop an array of G.R.E.E.N. products, which have been promoted as being environmental friendly. This sort of use of color with food is usually beyond the purvey of the technologist, but such marketing decisions may result in formulation requests to research and development.

It can be concluded that color has an important association with food, which extends far beyond the technologist's concern with measurement. An examination of all the facets as they affect any product is becoming increasingly important in coping with the greater degree of sophistication and competitiveness occurring in the food industry.

Homemade Pet Food Secrets

Homemade Pet Food Secrets

It is a well known fact that homemade food is always a healthier option for pets when compared to the market packed food. The increasing hazards to the health of the pets have made pet owners stick to containment of commercial pet food. The basic fundamentals of health for human beings are applicable for pets also.

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