Microorganisms Used In Fermented Foods

The number of microbial species used in fermented foods is surprisingly small. Of the thousands of species of microorganisms in nature, only the following genera are well utilized by the food fermentation industry (2):

Bacteria: Acetobacter, Streptococcus, Lactococcus, Leu-conostoc, Pediococcus, Lactobacillus, Propionibacterium, Brevibacterium, Bacillus, Micrococcus, and Staphylococcus. There has been a major renaming of some key bacteria used in fermentation as follows: Streptococcus cremois to Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris

Streptococcus lactis to Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis Streptococcus diacetylactis to Lactococcus lactic subsp. lactis biovar diacetylactis Leuconostoc citrovorum to Leuconostoc mesenter-oides subsp. cremoris

Lactobacillus bulgaricus to Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus

Streptococcus thermophilus unchanged Lactobacillus helvticus unchanged Yeast: Saccharomyces (especially S. cerevisiae and S. carlsbergensis), Candida, Torulopsis, and Hansenula Mold: Aspergillus, Penicillium, Rhizopus, Mucor, Mon-ascus, and Actinomucor

In many tradition or indigenous fermented products, the cultures are not known or identified.

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