The most basic and oldest processing method is cream separation. Ancient people are known to have used milk freely. It is probable that they used the cream that rose to the top of milk that had been held for some time in containers, although there is little in ancient literature to suggest that such use was common. It is well established that in early times butter was produced by churning milk.
The principal questions concerning separation in a butter-manufacturing facility are the choice of cream fat content and the choice of the separation technique, milk separation before or after pasteurization, temperature of separation, and regulation of the fat content. Separation of cream from milk is possible because of a difference in specific gravity between the fat and the liquid portion, or serum. Whether separation is accomplished by gravity or centrifugal methods, the result depends on this difference (28).
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