Milk Processing

Considerable variations in energy requirements for milk processing have been reported for different plants. Fuel requirements for producing pasteurized bottled milk ranges from 0.25 to 2.65 MJ/L of milk (7). The energy used for processing cheese during the regular plant operation is approximately 2.13 kJ/kg. Excluding drying and evaporation, energy required to produce 1 kg of cheese is in the range of 3.37 to 17.53 MJ (4). Some of this variation is due to a lack of concern to energy conservation, but there are also operational factors that may explain variations among plants.

Considering energy allocation to individual unit operations separately in a typical processing of pasteurized bottled milk, most of the energy is used in pasteurization step (approximately 23% of electricity and 35% of fuel). In the production of pasteurized bottled milk, bottle washing consumes approximately 58% of the fuel energy and 6% of the electricity used in the process.

In butter production pasteurization consumes approximately 30% of the fuel energy. The churning process and cold storage of butter consume approximately 50% of the electricity required for butter processing.

In yogurt production energy for heating and cooling per kilogram of product averages 1,146 kJ/kg (8). The heating of the base yogurt from 10 to 87.8°C uses 80% of the energy, and the electrical equipment used in product handling and packaging consumes only 6%. The manufacturing process of sour cream is similar to that for yogurt, except the amount of heating is considerably less because the highest product temperature is 22.2°C for sour cream compared to 87.8°C for yogurt. In packaging, the shrink wrap machine is not used for holding the sour cream cartons. The thermal energy ratio is 273 kJ/kg of sour cream and packaging uses less electrical energy primarily because of the lack of the shrink wrap operation. Product handling and packaging uses 49 kJ/kg of sour cream compared to 78 kJ/kg of yogurt. Total energy, thermal plus electrical, is 287 kJ/kg for sour cream compared to 1,224 kJ/kg for yogurt. The above values of energy to manufacture sour cream and yogurt exclude the following: the energy required to pasteurize

16. J. S. Pagington, "Molecular Encapsulation with B-Cyclo-dextrin Food Flavor Ingredients," Process Packaging 7(9) 50 (Sept. 1985).

17. G. A. Reineccius and S. J. Risch, "Encapsulation of Artificial Flavors with B-Cyclodextrin Food Flavor Ingredients," Process Packaging 8(9), 1 (Aug.-Sept. 1986).

18. L. Szente and J. Szejti, "Stabilization of Flavors by Cyclod-extrins," in Réf. 1, Chap. 16, pp. 148-157.

19. J. A. Bakan and J. S. Anderson, "Microencapsulation," in L. Lachman, H. A. Lieberman, and J. L. Kanig, eds., The Theory and Practice of Industrial Pharmacy, Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia, 1970, p. 384.

20. D. Blenford, "Fully Protected Food Flavor Ingredients," Process Packaging 8(8), 43 (July 1986).

21. H. Weiss, president, Balchem Corp., unpublished data.

22. L. E. Werner, "Encapsulated Food Acids," Cereal Food World 25(3), 102 (1980).

23. R. E. Graves, "Sausage Fermentation: New Ways to Control Acidulations of Meat," National Provisioner 198(21), 32-34, 49 (May 1988).

24. J. Bacus, "Fermenting Meat, Part I," Meat Processing 24(2), 26-31.

25. J. Bacus, "Fermenting Meat, Part II," Meat Processing 24(3), 32-35 (Mar. 1986).

26. G. J. Jedlicka, "Chemical Acidulation of Semi-Dry Sausage." paper presented at American Meat Institute Convention, New Orleans, 1984.

27. U.S. Pat. 3,959,496 (May 25,1976) S. Jackel and R. V. Diachuk (to Baker Research and Development Co.).

28. C. Andres, "Encapsulated Ingredients," Food Processing 38(12), 44 (Nov. 1977).

29. L. A. Gorton, "Encapsulation Stabilizes Vitamin C in Cupcakes," Baking Industry 148(1805), 20-21 (Jan. 1981).

30. C. J. Pacifico, "A Novel Approach to Vitamin C Nutrition for Fish Rations," Aquaculture Today 2(4), 20-22 (1989).

Bob Graves Herb Weiss Balchem Corporation Slate Hill, New York

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