Nn

AC burst

AC burst

Spike

Figure 2. Common electrical waveforms that have been used for carcass electrical stimulation. All are shown at the same peak amplitude. (In the United States, a 60-Hz waveform is the basic supply.) (a) 50-Hz alternating current waveform (100 pulses/s). (b) MIRINZ waveform, derived by selecting every seventh pulse to give 14.28 pulses/s. (c) Square wave pulse train (14.28 pulses of 5-ms duration per second), (d) Bursts of the 50-Hz waveform. Common on-off times are 2 s on; 2 s off. (e). Spike pulses (commonly with base widths of 0.2-0.3 ms).

resistance can severely limit current flow. To solve this problem, there has been considerable effort to develop alternative procedures. The Australians (21) have used an anal electrode to provide good contact near the hind quarter and using this system have achieved effective low-voltage stimulation.

High voltages (greater than 200 V peak) are usually used for automated and high throughput systems to obtain maximum effect in the shortest period of time and to overcome variability of stimulation response that exists with low-voltage systems (22). Because high voltages are potentially lethal, considerable attention is paid to safety when they are being used.

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