A Area, m2

D Diameter, mm

DM Dry matter content, %

H Enthalpy, J/kg

G Mass flow rate per unit width of wall, kg/m • s

T Temperature, °C

U Overall heat transfer coefficient, W/m2 °C

X Mass fraction of solute in the liquid

XI Molar concentration Fr Froude number

Nu Nusselt number

Pr Prandtl number

Re Reynolds number a Coefficient used in eq. 13

g Gravitational constant, m/s2

h Enthalpy of liquid, J/kg hc Convective heat-transfer coefficient, W/m2 °C

k Thermal conductivity, W/m °C

m Mass flow rate for evaporator, kg/s u Liquid-vapor velocity, m/s x Thickness, mm y Vapor quality

A Boiling point elevation, °C

X Latent heat of vaporization, J/kg

er Surface tension, N/m


1 First effect in a double-effect evaporator

2 Second effect in a double-effect evaporator A Solvent component of product (water)

F Feed b Boiling c Concentration f Fluid, or liquid state m Log-mean value p Product s Steam (or other heating medium)

v Vapor w Wall condition

0 Pure state

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