A Area, m2

D Diameter, mm

DM Dry matter content, %

H Enthalpy, J/kg

G Mass flow rate per unit width of wall, kg/m • s

T Temperature, °C

U Overall heat transfer coefficient, W/m2 °C

X Mass fraction of solute in the liquid

XI Molar concentration Fr Froude number

Nu Nusselt number

Pr Prandtl number

Re Reynolds number a Coefficient used in eq. 13

g Gravitational constant, m/s2

h Enthalpy of liquid, J/kg hc Convective heat-transfer coefficient, W/m2 °C

k Thermal conductivity, W/m °C

m Mass flow rate for evaporator, kg/s u Liquid-vapor velocity, m/s x Thickness, mm y Vapor quality

A Boiling point elevation, °C

X Latent heat of vaporization, J/kg

er Surface tension, N/m


1 First effect in a double-effect evaporator

2 Second effect in a double-effect evaporator A Solvent component of product (water)

F Feed b Boiling c Concentration f Fluid, or liquid state m Log-mean value p Product s Steam (or other heating medium)

v Vapor w Wall condition

0 Pure state

Homemade Pet Food Secrets

Homemade Pet Food Secrets

It is a well known fact that homemade food is always a healthier option for pets when compared to the market packed food. The increasing hazards to the health of the pets have made pet owners stick to containment of commercial pet food. The basic fundamentals of health for human beings are applicable for pets also.

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