Table 3. Milk Fat Ingredients

Product class

Performance requirement by food formulator

Process of manufacture


Whole milk Cream Butter

Component: Anhydrous milk fat Rearrangement of composition


Natural flavor and liquid, whippable Solid or spreadable form Spreadability

Strong dairy flavor with no interfering components

Control of melting characteristics while retaining natural flavor performance

Greater spreadability or increased levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids

Light color Deep color

Melting-point control

Centrifugal separation 7

Churning 21

Ammix process 22

Dehydrate and wash 23

Selection of natural properties 24

Fractional crystallization and separation 25

Inclusion of nondairy oils into churning process (compound butter) Inclusion of polyunsaturated oils before 26

churning or by recombining Introduce protected polyunsaturated oils to 27

feed of the cows Destruction of carotene by steam deodorization

Select milkfat by origin 28

Fractional crystallization and separation 29

Skim milk '


— Co-precipitates

Skim milk powder

- Instant SMP

- Heat range SMP

- High protein SMP Figure 3. The products derived from skim milk.

group of experts, milk proteins meet all the requirements for essential amino acids. Whey proteins are particularly rich in the sulfur-containing amino acids (methionine and cystine), so they serve a valuable role complementing the amino acid profile of proteins of vegetable origin in food formulations that require high nutritional quality (30).

A physiological role for milk proteins in human nutrition is based on the activity of the immunoglobulins, lac-toferrin, and other proteins that are present in small amounts (31). The particular amino acid profile of whey proteins has been proposed as a fundamental property that improves immunocompetence of humans (32).

The proteins in milk are recoverable by long-practiced separation procedures such as by very specific enzymatic precipitation (as in the case of rennet casein), heat precipitation (as in lactalbumin), and by isoelectric precipitation (as in acid caseins). The most widely used of these is the last-named (33).

Recent technological advances have resulted in the manufacture of soluble whey protein concentrates that are produced by the membrane process of ultrafiltration of whey. Functional whey protein concentrates that contain up to about 80% protein are commercially available.

Products that provide the combined benefits of casein and whey protein have been available in the form of co-precipitates, which are manufactured by control of temperature, acidity level, and calcium level (33). More recently developed technology using shifts in pH has resulted in new products that combine strong functionality with high PER levels (34,35).

Specific functional performance has been engineered into caseinates, which have been solubilized from acid casein by reaction with alkali (2). Arising from a precise understanding of the influence of minerals, a growing comprehension of the modifications achievable by controlled management of enzymatic reaction a number of highly specific protein products have been created. Also of considerable importance to the food formulator is the fact that the protein component of a food should not contribute unwelcome flavors. Adsorption technology has been used to enhance the already bland flavor of casein products. The use of casein (and caseinate) as an ingredient in foods is very extensive, as it provides strong functional performance, high levels of protein relative to milk, competitive cost, and strong nutritive quality (36).

Similar product development has been applied to whey protein concentrates ( WPCs) with the result that enhanced gelation performance and products with unusual heat stability have been achieved. The selection of an appropriately functional WPC for a particular use in food formulation can offer substantial benefits (37).

Very high purity levels of whey protein have been achieved on the industrial scale by ion exchange processes that produce isolates, but the cost penalty that is incurred means that only the very highest-priced market applications can be considered for such products.

The enzymatic hydrolysis of proteins may be used to produce products of low or zero allergenicity. This technique is receiving intensive scientific attention and is likely to result in products that will have considerable impact in improving the health of infants, and possibly others, who have specific nutritional requirements (Table 4).

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