Figure 11. Schematic diagram of glyceryl monopalmitate/ amylose complex, a = "Free" space.

Figure 11. Schematic diagram of glyceryl monopalmitate/ amylose complex, a = "Free" space.

Table 7. Complex Formation Between Amylose and Food Emulsifiers

Amylose complexing

Materials index

Distilled monoglycerides, 90-92% 1 monoester

Lard, hydrogenated 92

Lard, unhydrogenated, 45% monoolein 35

Soya bean oil, hydrogenated, 85% monostearin 87

Soya bean oil, unhydrogenated, 55% monolinolein 28

Monodiglycerides, 45% monoester 28

Organic acid esters of monoglycerides

Lactic acid esters 22

Succinic acid esters 63

Diacetylated tartaric acid esters 49

Distilled propylene glycol monostearate, 90% 15

Sucrose monostearate (commercial sample) 26 Polyoxylethylene-sorbitan-(20)-monostearate

(commercial sample) 32

Stearoyl-2-lactylate 79

No stearoyl-2-lactylate 72

Ca stearoyl-2-lactylate 65

Na stearyl-fumarate 67

starch, such as pasta, instant potato products, and starch-based desserts. By complexing with the starch, surfactants improve the texture, and cohesive strength and prevent stickiness in cooked pasta; they also, for the same reason, prevent lumpiness and stickiness in rehydrated instant potatoes and starch-based desserts, which would normally occur with the presence of free amylose.

Certain surfactants that are either anionic or ethoxy-lated have the ability to react with gluten and other proteins, thereby improving their film-forming ability and cohesive strength. They are known as dough strengtheners or dough conditioners.

Their ability to strengthen protein is the result of the surfactant forming a complex between glutinous protein fractions, together with nonglutinous protein and native polar lipids (31).

Because of the improved cohesive strength of the gluten, the dough has improved tolerance to mixing and increased tolerance to the addition of nonwheat proteins. These changes result in improved loaf volume and symmetry, better crumb texture and cell structure, and greater resistance to staling. The best known of these dough conditioners are the sodium and calcium salts of stearoyl lactylic acid, the ethoxylated glyceryl and sorbitan monostearates, and datem esters. Hydrophilic lecithins have also been shown to possess gluten-strengthening properties (32).

Surfactants are used to stabilize salad-dressing emulsions and to emulsify flavor oils. They are used in chewing gum and certain other confections such as caramel to prevent wrapper sticking and sticking to false dentures. Surfactants find use as extrusion aids in snack foods and meat analogues. Surfactants based on unsaturated fatty acids such as glyceryl monooleate are used as antifoams in sugar processing and confectionery manufacture.

The market for surfactants in foods is now about 400,000,000 lb annually in the United States. About 275,000,000 lb are consumed in foods in Europe and 180,000,000 in Japan.

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