Butylated hydroxytoluene 2-Butylated hydroxyanisole Tertiary butylhydroquinone Propyl gallate

Figure 2. Synthetic chain-breaking antioxidants approved for food use.

metal coordination sites, form insoluble metal complexes, and stearically hinder interactions between metals and lipids (16). Common chelators added to foods include eth-ylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), polyphosphates, and citric acid (4). In addition, biological tissues from which we derive foods contain proteins and peptides that bind and inactivate metals such as serum albumin (Cu), transferrin (Fe), lactoferrin (Fe), ferritin (Fe), carnosine (Cu), and histidine (Cu) (4).

Combinations of chelators and chain-breaking antioxidants often result in increased inhibition of lipid oxidation (3). The ability of chelators to decrease metal-catalyzed free-radical generation decreases the rate at which chain-breaking antioxidants are consumed, thus making the concentration of the chain-breaking antioxidant greater at any given time.

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