Figure 6. Naringin, a bitter-tasting glycoside.

astringency is due to tannins or polyphenols interacting with the proteins in the saliva to form precipitates or aggregates. Astringency may be a desirable flavor property, such as in tea and red wine.


Certain compounds (Fig. 7) found in several spices and vegetables cause characteristic hot, sharp, burning, and stinging sensations that are known collectively as pungency.

Cooling Effect

Cooling sensations occur when certain chemicals (Fig. 8) contact the nasal or oral tissues and stimulate a specific receptor. This effect is most commonly associated with mintlike flavors, including peppermint, spearmint, and wintergreen.

The Mediterranean Diet Meltdown

The Mediterranean Diet Meltdown

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