Oh

H OH Inositol

Figure 8. Surface active components of commercial lecithin. Phosphatidyl ethanolamine and phosphatidyl choline are amphoteric emulsifiers, while phosphatidyl inositol is anionic.

Many emulsifiers have functions that are not directly related to emulsification. For example, monoglycerides are widely used to retard firming (staling) of bread and similar baked goods. In this use the monoglyceride forms a complex with gelatinized starch in the bread crumb decreasing the rate at which it recrystallizes. Lecithin is added to melted chocolate intended for coating confectionery goods. The lecithin decreases the viscosity of the chocolate, improving coverage of the confectionery piece at lower use levels of the chocolate. Some emulsifiers (succistearin and polyglycerol esters) are used in oils to inhibit or modify fat crystal formation when the oils are cooled. The emulsifier deposits on the surface of the fat microcrystals (nuclei) and interferes with normal crystal growth.

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