C: Chalcone (colorless)

B: Carbinol pseudo-base (colorless)

Figure 4. Structural changes in anthocyanins with pH. Malvidin-3-glucoside at 25°C.

Figure 5. Effect of pH on the distribution of anthocyanin structures of malvidin-3-glucoside. A, B, C, and AH+ refer to the forms in Figure 4.

the eluate will be redder than the bluer trailing portion, because the higher molecular weight compounds will go through the resin bed at a slower rate. Treatment with resins produces a purer product but at a higher price. The FDA-approved procedures for extraction are specified in the CFR Section 73.170 for Grape Skin Extract.

Extraction of grape skins is much more efficient with acidified methanol or ethanol, but this requires another step to remove the alcohol. Wineries are usually familiar with handling alcohol, but other potential colorant producers seem reluctant to put an alcohol recovery unit in a food plant. Regardless, alcohol extraction does not seem to have commercial appeal.

Current emphasis is on attempts to make colorants containing anthocyanins more stable. Considerable research emphasis has been on the copigmentation or association of anthocyanins with themselves or with a series of other compounds such as flavonoids, polysaccharides, proteins, tannins, and other polyphenolic compounds.

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