Other Fatty Type Ingredients

Fat-soluble margarine ingredients include soy lecithin, monoglycerides, derivatives of monoglycerides, vitamin A, beta-carotene, flavorants, and some preservatives.

Lecithin is phosphatidylcholine, a by-product of refining soybean oil. The addition of lecithin to margarine is to promote the frying performance of the margarine. Addition of about 0.2% of lecithin will dramatically reduce the tendency of margarines to "spatter" in frying. Lecithin prevents the coalescence of large droplets of water that would become steam at frying temperatures.

Monoglycerides and distilled monoglycerides are emul-sifiers, or surface active agents that promote stability of the oil and water mixture by linking the naturally immiscible fats and water-laden ingredients at the fat-water interface. Use of 0.10 to 0.25% of monoglycerides also promotes creaminess in mouth-feel.

Derivatives of monoglycerides include polyglycerol esters, propylene glycol monoesters, and other such materials. Primary use of these materials is as whipping/ creaming agents for expanding volume of the margarine or spread by incorporation of nitrogen, creating a three-phase foam of gas in water-in-oil.

Vitamin A palmitate is the palmitic acid ester of retinoic acid. Regulations require addition to total fortification of 15,000 IU/lb, or about 4,500 fig per pound, which equates to about 10 ppm. Vitamin A palmitate is the fat-soluble market form of vitamin A, as opposed to vitamin A citrate, a water-soluble form typically found in multivitamin tablets. Although no regulation requires spreads (nonstandard products) to be fortified, market forces have caused all nonmargarine spreads in the United States to be fortified with vitamin A at the same concentrations as those of margarine.

Vitamin D (calciferol) is an optional ingredient that may be added to margarine and spreads at 1,500 IU/lb.

Beta-carotene is a double molecule of retinoic acid and is used as the colorant of choice in the majority of margarines marketed in the United States. It is also called provitamin A because it is metabolized within the liver to become vitamin A. In practice, margarine is fortified with about 5 ppm of beta-carotene for optimal coloring. This permits the manufacturer to reduce the amount of vitamin A palmitate added, as both vitamin A palmitate and beta-carotene contribute to the total vitamin A activity in the product.

Annatto or annatto-turmeric extracts are also used as margarine colorants, typically at concentrations of about 10 to 20 ppm. These are vegetable extracts.

Preservatives may be added to protect the oil from oxidative rancidity or to retard the growth of microorganisms.

Flavorants typically added to margarine and/or spreads are generally mixtures of synthesized or extracted chemicals. Principal flavorant substances are 2,3 butadione (di-acetyl); lactic acid; short-chain fatty acids such as butyric, caproic, or capryllic; lactones; keto acids; some aldehydes; indole; methyl indole; or similar materials. Typical usage is about 5.0 to about 300 ppm, depending on desired strength of flavor.

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