Other Treatments

Ozone treatment also has been used for preservation of foods, especially of fruits and vegetables. Ozone-treated broiler parts have consistently lower microbial counts than air-treated control parts during the entire refrigerated observation period (68). Using log total microbial counts of 7.0/cm2 as spoilage criterion, broiler parts treated with ozone had a shelf life that was extended for 2.4 days. It was also indicated that ozone-treated carcasses contained about 52.7% gram-positive cocci, while air-treated controls had 39.6% gram-positive cocci. Studies using microflora from spoiled poultry meat have also demonstrated that ozone treatment preferentially destroyed gram-negative, rod-type organisms.

Radurization processing of fresh eviscerated poultry with a dose of 5 kGy has been reported to extend the shelf life at 5°C by approximately 14 days (69). It has been reported that at 4°C the shelf life of chicken carcass was 3 days for nonirradiated samples, 13 days for those irradiated at 3 kGy, and greater than 30 days for those irradiated at 7 kGy (70). Chicken carcasses irradiated with 5 to 10

kGy at 3 to 4°C could extend the shelf life by 2 to 4 weeks (71). Chicken breast meats were irradiated with 3.7 kGy at 0°C; a satisfactory quality for about 3 weeks was reported (72). Recently, it was noted that irradiation increased the shelf life of chicken fillets (73). The time required to reach a log number of 6.5/g was 15 days for the controls and 35 days for the fillets treated with 2 kGy, all stored at 3°C. The combination of vacuum skin packaging and 4 kGy irradiation dose resulted in fillets with a shelf life of more than 45 days at 3°C. Irradiation at 3 kGy destroyed all inoculated S. typhimurium and E. coli in ground chicken meat.

Antagonisms of microorganisms on broiler carcasses have been observed. The growth-interfering effect of spoilage microorganisms by gram-positive cocci on broiler carcasses has been reported (74). This growth-interfering effect was greater at 2 to 4°C and 5 to 7°C than at 19 to 21°C. The higher the ratio of the gram-positive cocci to the rodtype spoilage microorganisms, the more the growth-interfering effect was observed. The cell-free filtrates from gram-positive broth cultures interfered with the growth of the spoilage microorganisms at 2 to 4°C, and the causative agent was heat-sensitive metabolites.

The Mediterranean Diet Meltdown

The Mediterranean Diet Meltdown

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