Overview

TSEs disrupt the function of nerve cells. In TSEs there are characteristic vacuolar degeneration of neurons in the brain and spinal cord, giving the tissue a spongelike appearance (Fig. 1). TSEs evoke no immune response and are inevitably fatal (2-5).

The incubation period (ie, the time between exposure and the onset of clinical signs) in cattle is very long, rang-

Figure 1. Lesions in the gray matter of the brain of a sheep with scrapie: (A) typical spongiform change in neurons; (B) spongiform change and astrocytic hypertrophy and hyperplasia, (a) Hematoxylin and eosin stain; (b), glial fibrillar acid protein (GFAP) stain. Magnification X500. Source: Courtesy of Dr. Robert Higgins, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis.

Figure 1. Lesions in the gray matter of the brain of a sheep with scrapie: (A) typical spongiform change in neurons; (B) spongiform change and astrocytic hypertrophy and hyperplasia, (a) Hematoxylin and eosin stain; (b), glial fibrillar acid protein (GFAP) stain. Magnification X500. Source: Courtesy of Dr. Robert Higgins, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis.

71. J. A. Luna, R. L. Garrote, and J. A. Bressan, "Thermo-kinetic Modeling of Peroxidase Inactivation during Blanching-Cooling of Corn on the Cob," Journal of Food Science 51,141145 (1986).

72. A. B. Newman, "The Drying of Porous Solids: Diffusion Calculations," Transactions oftheAIChE 27, 310 (1931).

73. G. Hough, S. M. Alzamora, and J. Chirife, "Effect of Piece Shape and Size on Leaching of Vitamin C during Water Blanching of Potato," Journal of Food Engineering 8,303-310 (1988).

74. P. Rice, J. D. Selman, and R. K. Abdul-Rezzak, "Nutrient Loss in the Hot Water Blanching of Potatoes," International Journal of Food Science and Technology 25, 61-65 (1990).

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