Preface To The First Edition

Although this encyclopedia is designed for food scientists and technologists, it also contains information useful to food engineers, chemists, biologists, ingredient suppliers, and other professionals involved in the food chain.

The topics selected are based on the following frame of reference:

A. Basic and Applied Sciences

1. Biology: botany, bacteriology, microbiology, mycology, eg, photosynthesis, food microbiology, my-cotoxins.

2. Chemistry: biochemistry, physical chemistry, analytical chemistry, organic chemistry, radiochem-istry, forensic chemistry, eg, food chemistry, food analysis, interesterification, emulsification.

3. Physics: rheology, thermodynamics, cryogenics, radiophysics, ultrasonics, eg, food rheology, thermodynamics, microwave, irradiation.

4. Nutrition: basic, applied, and clinical nutrition, eg, nutrition, protein, energy, dietetics, nutritional quality and food processing.

5. Psychology: sensory behaviors, eg, food and color, sensory sciences, taste and odor.

6. Medicine: metabolisms, toxicology, heart diseases, eg, food utilization, cholesterol, foodborne diseases.

7. Economics: marketing, development, eg, food marketing, food industry economic development.

8. Integrated sciences: history of foods, food structure.

B. Processing Technology, Engineering, and the

Twenty-three Unit Operations

1. Raw material preparation, eg, apricots and apricot processing, milk and milk products.

2. Size reduction, eg, potato and potato processing, crabs and crab processing.

3. Mixing and forming, eg, confectionery, biscuits and cracker technology.

4. Mechanical separations, eg, meat processing technology, cheeses, poultry product and technology.

5. Membrane concentration, eg, milk and membrane technology

6. Biotechnology, eg, genetic engineering

7. Irradiation, eg, irradiation

8. Blanching, eg, blanching, vegetables processing

9. Pasteurization, eg, yogurt

10. Heat sterilization, eg, aseptic processing

11. Evaporation, eg, evaporation, distillation, heat transfer, heat exchangers

12. Extrusion, eg, extrusion and extrusion cooking, snack foods

13. Dehydration, eg, fruit dehydration, vegetable dehydration, drier technology and engineering

14. Baking and roasting, eg, baking science and technology, breakfast cereals

15. Frying, eg, frying technology, fats and oils

16. Microwave and infrared radiation, eg, microwave science and technology

17. Chilling and controlled- (modified-) atmosphere storage, eg, chilled foods, controlled atmospheres for fresh fruits and vegetables, packaging and modified atmospheres.

18. Freezing, eg, food freezing, freezing systems, refrigerated foods

19. Freeze drying and freeze concentration, eg, freeze drying, driers technology and engineering.

20. Coating or enrobing, eg, fish and shellfish products, poultry processing technology,

21. Packaging, eg, packaging materials, packaging and labeling

22. Filling and sealing of containers, eg, aseptic processing and packaging

23. Materials handling and process control, eg, computer and food processing, artificial intelligence, expert systems

C. Food Laws and Regulations

1. Basic principles, eg, food laws and regulations

2. Food identity, eg, standards and grades

3. Food chemicals, eg, food additives

4. Health and safety, eg, sanitation

5. Food processing plants, eg, food plant design and construction, food processing: standard industrial classifications.

6. Food plant inspection, eg, food laws and regulations.

Apart from members of the editorial advisory board, hundreds of professionals in the academic, industry, and government have personally counseled me on many aspects of the work. Their combined effort is reflected in the articles in this encyclopedia: appropriateness of the selection of topics; diverse expertise and background of each contributor; the excellent treatment of each article. The users are the best judge of these claims.

A small portion of the text is devoted to cover nontechnical data:

1. Descriptions of selected scientific institutions, eg, Institute of Food Technologists.

2. Food science and technology in selected countries in the world, eg, International Development: South Africa.

3. Research and development in major U.S. government agencies, eg, U.S. Department of Agriculture.

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