Prepared Ingredients For Foods

Sophisticated food ingredients have been specifically designed to provide physical functional performance for par ticular food systems. Strong functional properties are provided by dairy-based ingredients.

Casein protein has an open structure and has separate areas of hydrophobic and hydrophyllic nature along the protein molecule. Consequently, it diffuses readily to interfaces and has powerful emulsion-forming end stabilizing properties. Whey proteins unfold on heating and so, similarly, expose hydrophillic areas of the polypeptide chains. They also gel and can provide natural thickening and stabilizing function. The properties of caseinates and coprecipitates can be tailored by control of ionic content to provide a range of viscosities, solubilities, foaming and whipping (67), and surface activity (68). Measurements of the function of milk proteins have proved difficult to relate to the performance of these proteins in the complex environment of food systems (69), but considerable progress has been made (70,71). Manufacturing techniques that control the function of proteins are being practiced (72).

The functional properties of milkfat vary because of the effects on the secretory process in the mammary glands of cows by the breed of the cow and by the type of feed that she receives and that changes seasonally. Levels of technological control by temperature control during processing, texturizing by physical means, and fractionation by controlled crystallization minimize these variations (19).

Table 7. Nutritionally Valuable Components in Minor Concentrations

Product class

Performance requirement of food formulations

Process of manufacture



Biologically active Lactoferrin

Lactoperoxidase Immunoglobulins

Natural, origin, low flavor, bioavailable

Microbiological inhibition by iron binding. Nutritionally available form of iron Natural antimicrobial system

Natural antibody active against a wide range of diseases


Sophisticated chromatography

Sophisticated chromatography Specialized ultrafiltration

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