Process Analysis

Frying is a unit operation composed of multiple subsystems. A fryer is a process reactor wherein chemical and physical interactions are induced to occur between oil and food. Thermal energy is supplied to the reactor by heating the oil in the fryer vat through direct or indirect means, and waste energy escapes to the environment by conduction through the reactor walls and by water evaporation. Raw food containing an excess of water (and sometimes solids) enters the reactor in immersed batches (basket-loads) or immersed or submerged continuous (conveyor) streams, and the food emerges in a cooked state separated from waste materials: water (liquid and vapor), organic volatiles, and particulate solids.

Oil in the reactor vat is replenished to make up for losses incurred by adsorption and absorption by the food. Oil is also filtered (cleaned) to remove particulates, some oil degradation chemicals, and interaction by-products formed between oil and food degradation products such as emulsified water. Oil filtration and/or treatment materials are discarded from the oil cleaning and/or filtering apparatus, and the oil is recycled into the fryer until the oil is out of specification for food manufacture; it is then discarded from the process. The process reactor when drained of oil also requires cleaning and sanitation to prevent fouling and to provide a contaminant-free process environment; this step also generates a waste stream of chemicals, particulates, and water.

Process monitoring and control involve thermal and other measurements of the reactor's input and output streams, sampling oil and food to judge product quality and potential shelf life, and sampling waste streams to suggest the extent of needed treatment.

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Losing Weight Quickly With the Raw Food Diet

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