Figure 1. Chemical structures of some fluorescence probes that may be used for determination of protein hydrophobicity. ANS = 1-anilinonaphthal-ene-8-sulfonic acid; CPA = cis-parinaric acid; DPH = diphenylhexatriene; PRODAN = 6-propionyl-2-(dimethylamino)naphthalene. The two anionic probes (ANS and CPA) are shown in the dissociated acid form. Source: Courtesy of Dr. C. A. Haskard.

ering the need to study proteins that are typically more than 20 kilodaltons in molecular weight and in a turbid solution or solid phase, the most promising techniques to study hydrophobicity in food protein systems are nuclear magnetic resonance (60), infrared (60), and Raman spectroscopy (60,61). The reader is referred to more specialized volumes on these techniques.

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