Regulatory Aspects For Limonin In Grapefruit Juice

Until recently there were no federal regulations for limonin content of grapefruit juice. Regulations issued by the state of Florida Department of Citrus (31) were in effect for many years to ensure the quality of juice produced in Florida. Recent changes in federal regulations, however, prohibit regulations at the state level more strict than federal regulations. Both grapefruit juice not from concentrate and grapefruit juice from concentrate products are covered under a federal standard of identity (32) with no mention of a maximum amount of limonin that may be present. Therefore, these may not be regulated at the state level for limonin content. Grapefruit juice concentrate does not have a federal standard of identity and therefore may still be regulated at the state level for limonin and naringin content. The Florida regulations (31) regarding limonin content in frozen concentrated grapefruit juice specify:

For the period August 1 to December 1 of each season:

(a) Grade "A" finished product shall meet at least one of the following requirements: (1) contains less than 5.0 ppm [5.0 fig/ mL] limonin, measured by high pressure liquid chromatography, or (2) contains less than 600 ppm [600 //g/mLl naringin, measured by the Davis Test, (b) Grade "B" finished products shall meet at least one of the following requirements: (1) contains less than 7.0 ppm [7.0 //g/mL] limonin, measured by high pressure liquid chromatography, or (2) contains less than 750 ppm [750 /ig/mLJ naringin, measured by the Davis Test, (c) All products failing to meet the permissible limits of subsection

(b) for Grade "B" product, shall be labeled Substandard Frozen Concentrated Grapefruit Juice, and may be held in appropriately marked bulk containers for subsequent blending into Frozen Concentrated Grapefruit Juice for Manufacturing only, (d) Maximum naringin and limonin requirements set forth in subsections (a) and (b) shall not apply: (1) to finished product produced solely from concentrate processed between December 2 and July 31, or (2) to finished product produced from concentrate or bulk single strength juice processed between December 2 and July 31, provided any raw juice blended therewith meets the permissible limits of naringin or limonin for Grade "A" product respectively.

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