T

The value of entropy is always positive and is actually a measure of the decline of the universe.

The total energy balance of a fluid flowing at steady state in a closed system (eg, food flowing through a pipe or chamber) accounts for the various changes that effect the thermodynamic state of the system between two given locations. An energy balance between the two sections of the fluid which is flowing is simplified for most food processing conditions in which the food is incompressible and the specific volume is essentially constant:

x is the potential energy due to height above reference plane, E is the internal energy, pv is the pv work done by the system, V2/2g is the kinetic energy of the flowing fluid, W is the work done by the system, and F is the friction loss due to contact with walls of the vessel. The total change in

Table 2. Useful Properties of Water

Properties of saturated water

Table 2. Useful Properties of Water

Properties of saturated water

reo

p (kg/m3)

Cp (J/kg • K)

k (W/m • K)

ft (Pa • s)

a (m2s)

Pr

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