The value of entropy is always positive and is actually a measure of the decline of the universe.

The total energy balance of a fluid flowing at steady state in a closed system (eg, food flowing through a pipe or chamber) accounts for the various changes that effect the thermodynamic state of the system between two given locations. An energy balance between the two sections of the fluid which is flowing is simplified for most food processing conditions in which the food is incompressible and the specific volume is essentially constant:

x is the potential energy due to height above reference plane, E is the internal energy, pv is the pv work done by the system, V2/2g is the kinetic energy of the flowing fluid, W is the work done by the system, and F is the friction loss due to contact with walls of the vessel. The total change in

Table 2. Useful Properties of Water

Properties of saturated water

Table 2. Useful Properties of Water

Properties of saturated water


p (kg/m3)

Cp (J/kg • K)

k (W/m • K)

ft (Pa • s)

a (m2s)


Sleeping Sanctuary

Sleeping Sanctuary

Salvation For The Sleep Deprived The Ultimate Guide To Sleeping, Napping, Resting And  Restoring Your Energy. Of the many things that we do just instinctively and do not give much  of a thought to, sleep is probably the most prominent one. Most of us sleep only because we have to. We sleep because we cannot stay awake all 24 hours in the day.

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