T3

Cottage cheese

Semisoft — Colby, Monterey, Egmont Hard-Granular, Cheddar, Cheshire

Very hard — Romano, Pepato, Parmesan

Hard -Gruyere, Emmental, Swiss

Semi soft — Gouda, Edam, Provolone Samsoe, Mozzarella Havarti, Blue stilton, Danbo i- Soft

Camembert, Brie, Feta

Young

Medium

Mature

Figure 4. Cheese types.

teristics as may be required for crust appearance, can be built-in during the manufacturing process.

Cheese flavors are often desired characteristics, and they range widely. They include fresh and carbohydrate-derived flavor as in lactic cottage cheese and in creamy harvati; protein-derived flavor as in matured cheddar and camembert; and fat-derived flavors as in parmesan and blue cheeses. Further flavor extension by inclusion of natural materials such as spices and herbs can be used with both natural and processed cheeses. Flavor contributions are particularly significant to cheese sauces, dressings, and parmesan toppings for European-style foods.

Particulate forms of cheese, prepared by grating, dicing, or drying, provide convenience for incorporation into food formulations. Varied flavor intensity (such as by enzyme treatment) can also be built into powdered cheeses. Powdered yogurts are available, for coating and as formulation ingredients. These can be used, along with cream cheese, cottage cheese, and quarg for a range of cheese-cakes and similar products.

New technologies, such as the use of ultrafiltration of milk before cheesemaking, have already yielded commercially successful forms of feta cheese with increased shelf life and promise to further extend the range of product composition that will be created (Table 5).

When used in the baking industry, it acts as a reducing sugar to promote the Maillard reaction, which increases the browning of the crust. At higher temperatures it will caramelize and so contribute to flavor.

In formulated powdered products lactose crystals are slow to take up moisture and consequently minimize the likelihood of caking and lumping. This same property is also a valuable aid to tableting.

Nutritionally, lactose has been shown to promote calcium and phosphorous absorption, which is especially useful in infant feeding preparations (56). It protects against destabilization of the caseinate complex during the drying process. Its presence can also maintain biological activity in the preparation of enzyme products. In brewing and baking applications, it is not fermented by conventional strains of yeast so its contribution to sweetness and color is not destroyed by the biological processes of those industries.

The hydrolysis of lactose yields a sweet syrup that contains glucose and galactose, which may have nutritional advantages in some dietary applications. Lactose-hydrolyzed syrups from permeates and wheys are commercially available and are being used in confectionery and ice cream (Table 6).

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