The Elements Of Optimization Problems

In every case of optimization, the problem must first be formulated and then the system to be optimized must be defined. This requires specifying the variables that affect the system's behavior. For example, in making a hot cup of tea, an obvious variable that affects the quality of the tea is the length of time the tea bag stays in the hot water. Performing experiments to measure the quality of the tea as a function of time generates a curve like the one shown in Figure 1. Choosing the maximum quality value and tracing it back to the corresponding optimum time optimizes this oversimplified and trivial system. Accounting for the effect of the water temperature on the tea quality complicates the system. In such a case a series of constant quality curves might be obtained (Fig. 2), which produce a set of optimum conditions for temperature and time.

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92. M. Brenes Balbuena et al., "Comparative Studies of the Conservation Systems of Black Table Olives," Grasas y Aceites

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96. M. C. Duran Quintana, P. Garcia Garcia, and A. Garrido Fernandez, "Aerobic Fermentation of Ripe Olives in Brine with Alternating Air Injection," Grasas y Aceites 37, 242-249

97. A. Garrido Fernandez, M. C. Duran Quintana, and P. Garcia Garcia, "Aerobic Fermentation of Natural Black Olives in Brine," Grasas y Aceites 38, 27-32 (1987).

98. P. Garcia Garcia, M. C. Duran Quintana, and A. Garrido Fernandez, "Packing of Aerobically Fermented Natural Black Olives," Grasas y Aceites 37, 92-96 (1986).

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100. S. Vitolo, L. Petarca, and B. Bresci, "Treatment of Olive Oil Industry Wastes," Bioresour. Technol. 67, 129-137(1999).

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102. G. C. Kopsidas, "Wastewater from the Table Olive Industry," Water Res. 28, 201-205 (1994).

103. F. Cabrera et al., "Land Treatment of Olive Oil Mill Wastewater," International Biodeterioration and Biodégradation

104. F. Flouri et al., "Decolorization of Olive Oil Mill Liquid Wastes by Chemical and Biological Means," International Biodeterioration and Biodégradation 38, 189-192 (1996).

105. I. Chatjipavlidis et al., "Bio Fertilization of Olive Oil Mills Liquid Wastes: The Pilot Plant in Messinia, Greece," International Biodeterioration and Biodégradation 38, 183-187 (1996).

106. B. Inigo Leal, "New Technological Trends in the Production and Preservation of Table Olives," Alimentaria 28, 61-65

107. A. Garrido Fernandez, M. Brenes Balbuena, and P. R. Garcia Garcia, "Treatment for Green Table Olive Fermentation Brines," Grasas y Aceites 43, 291-298 (1992).

108. A. Garrido, P. Garcia, and M. R. Brenes, "The Recycling of Table Olive Brine Using Ultrafiltration and Activated Carbon Adsorption," Journal of Food Engineering 17, 291-305

109. A. K. Kiritsakis, Olive Oil: From the Tree to the Table, 2nd ed., Food and Nutrition Press, Trumbull, Conn., 1998.

Jose M. Ordovas Tufts University Boston, Massachusetts

OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS. See Fats and oils:

chemistry, physics and applications.

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