Workers, as their name implies, do the work of the colony. The worker caste builds the combs used to house developing eggs, larvae, and pupae (collectively called brood) and to store honey and pollen. They forage outside the colony for nectar (carbohydrate) and pollen (proteins, vitamins, minerals, and fats) to provide food for the colony. Workers also feed the brood, queen, and drones and defend the colony against intruders. When a worker bee stings, the barbed stinger usually pulls out of her abdomen and remains attached to her victim, where its odor attracts more bees to sting. Bees that have stung die within a day.

Sexually, workers are females with 32 chromosomes and usually lack functional ovaries. However, in certain situations, such as the absence of a queen, it is possible for workers to lay eggs. Laying workers are incapable of laying fertile eggs since they do not mate with drones to obtain sperm. Consequently, they lay eggs that only produce hap-loid drones. This leads to eventual death of the colony. In rare situations, laying workers can produce females im-paternate (without fathers). This parthenogenic means of reproduction is found in the highest frequency in the race A. mellifera capensis.

During the busy foraging season, the life span of a worker is about six weeks. Workers literally work themselves to death. However, workers reared late in the fall often live through the winter into the following spring.

Homemade Pet Food Secrets

Homemade Pet Food Secrets

It is a well known fact that homemade food is always a healthier option for pets when compared to the market packed food. The increasing hazards to the health of the pets have made pet owners stick to containment of commercial pet food. The basic fundamentals of health for human beings are applicable for pets also.

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