Yogurt is a fermented milk product that is rapidly increasing in consumption in the United States. Milk is fermented with Lactobacillus delbrueckii spp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus organisms that produce lactic acid and the characteristic yogurt flavor. Usually some cream or nonfat dried milk is added to the milk to obtain a heavy-bodied yogurt.

Yogurt is manufactured similarly to cultured buttermilk. Milk with a fat content of 1 to 5% and SNF content of 11 to 14% is heated to about 82°C and held for 30 min. After homogenization, the milk is cooled to 43 to 46°C and inoculated with 2% culture. The product is incubated at 43°C for 3 h in a vat or in the final container. The yogurt is cooled and held at s4.4°C. The cooled product should have a titratable acidity of 0.9 to 1.2% and a pH of 4.3 to 4.4. The titratable acidity is expressed in terms of percentage of lactic acid, which is determined by the amount of 0.1 N NaOH/9 grams required to neutralize the substance. Thus, 10 mL of 0.1 N NaOH represent 1% acidity. Yogurts with <2% fat are popular. Fruit-flavored yogurts are also common; 30 to 50 g of fruit is placed in the bottom of the carton (sundae style) or mixed with the yogurt (swiss style).

The Mediterranean Diet Meltdown

The Mediterranean Diet Meltdown

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