Individuals with chronic disease

Chronic disease may increase risk of foodborne illnesses because of disease-associated immune suppression or pharmacological immune suppression. Advanced age and male gender were common descriptors of non-pregnancy associated cases of listeriosis in France (Goulet and Marchetti, 1996). Of the identified cases, the greatest risk of illness was found in patients who also had an immunosuppressing condition, such as diabetes mellitus, malignancy, organ transplantation, or AIDS. Diabetes leads to...

Foods for special uses

Food processors are aware of the special needs of consumers such as infants, the elderly final.doc), and immunocompromised patients. In addition to providing foods that are highly nutritious and meet physical requirements for chewing and swallowing, the foods may be produced with an extra degree of safety for these especially sensitive groups. Recently, Enterobacter sakazakii was recognized as a potential pathogen in powdered infant formula for infants under 2 months old (WHO, 2004). Processors...

Vertical integration of agricultural production

Production in livestock agriculture occurs more and more within the framework of vertically integrated companies. These vertically integrated companies shift the decisions of what, where, and how to produce away from farmers and landowners and give the power to marketing entities. In vertical integration, a single firm controls administrative operation of two or more successive stages of production. In vertically integrated firms, management directives dictate the transfer of resources across...

Canning

The history of canning began with Nicholas Appert, a French confectioner, who heated foods in wide-mouthed, corked glass bottles in boiling water to preserve them for use by the French military. At the time, preservation was primarily through drying or the addition of 'a foreign substance for the purpose of impeding fermentation or putrefaction' (sugar, salt, vinegar), each process having specific drawbacks (Appert, 1812). The French government, at war with several countries, offered rewards...

References

LEAHY, B. GOODE, T. DAMROW, P.S. HAYES, N.F. BIBB, D.H. RICE, T.J. BARRETT, L. HUTWAGNER, P.M. GRIFFIN and L. SLUTSKER. 1998. An outbreak of Escherichia coli O157 H7 infections associated with leaf lettuce consumption. J. Infect. Dis. 177 1588-1593. ANONYMOUS. 1999. Salmonellosis outbreak, South Australia. Commun. Dis. Intelligence 23 3 73. March 18. ANONYMOUS. 2000. Juice recall. Associated Press, April 21. APPENDINI, P. and J. H. HOTCHKISS. 2002. Review of...