Literature Cited

Abdalla, C.W., Roach, B.A., and Epp, D.J. 1992. Valuing environmental quality changes using averting expenditures An application to groundwater contamination. Land Econ. 68 63-169. Atkinson, S.E. and Halvorson, R. 1990. The valuation of risks to life Evidence from the market for automobiles. Rev. Econ. Stat. 72,1 133-136. Ames, B.N., Gold, L.S., and Willett, W.C. 1995. The causes and prevention of cancer. Proe. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 92 5258-5265. Baker, G.A. and Crosbie, P.J. 1993. Measuring...

Scientific Basis And Implications

In addition to its role in the development of HACCP plans, hazard characterization has been identified as the second step of the risk assessment process (Smith et al., 1999). The characterization includes determination of risk factors, defining the site and mechanism of action, and measuring the dose-response relationship (proportion responding or severity of response). Despite large uncertainties, dose-response models are commonly used to predict human health effects and even to establish...

Info

Approximate Minimum aw Values for Growth of Microorganisms Important in Foods Clostridium botulinum, type E 0.97 Clostridium botulinum, types A and B 0.94 yeast and molds grow over a wider aw range than bacteria, which usually require a higher water activity. For example, most spoilage bacteria will not grow below an aw of 0.91, whereas molds can grow as low as 0.81 aw. Among bacterial pathogens, S. aureus can grow as low as 0.84 w, but its toxin production may be reduced....

Introduction And Definition Of Issues

Human individuals and societies have been identifying risks and managing them since ancient times (When you build a new house, you shall make a parapet for your roof, so that you shall not put blood in your house if when one falls from it. Deut. 22 8) by various procedures, including establishing codes of practice and formal laws. What appears to be a more modern concern is the quantitative nature of risk, that is, the precise calculation of probabilities of risk. Performing these calculations...

Background And Historical Significance

Although food microbiology is a relatively young scientific field, foodborne and waterborne pathogens have been recognized for almost 200 years. Vibrio chol-erae consists of several serogroups, with V. cholerae Ol being the etiologic agent of the disease cholera, which has been documented as far back as 1817, the time of the first known pandemic. In 1854, the organism was first described and the connection between cholera and drinking water was hypothesized. The hypothesis was later proven,...

Key References

Buzby, J.C., Roberts, T Lin, J.C.-T., and MacDonald, J.M. August 1996. Bacterial foodborne disease medical costs and productivity losses. USDA, Econ. Res. Serv., AER-741. Shows ERS' methodology for estimating the costs of foodborne illness. Council for Agricultural Science and Technology. Sept. 1994. Foodborne Pathogens Risks and Consequences, Task Force Report No. 122. Washington, DC Council for Agricultural Science and Technology. Discusses food safety data sources and identifies foodborne...