Key References

Buzby, J.C., Roberts, T„ Lin, J.C.-T., and MacDonald, J.M. August 1996. Bacterial foodborne disease: medical costs and productivity losses. USDA, Econ. Res. Serv., AER-741.

Shows ERS' methodology for estimating the costs of foodborne illness. Council for Agricultural Science and Technology. Sept. 1994. Foodborne Pathogens: Risks and Consequences, Task Force Report No. 122. Washington, DC: Council for Agricultural Science and Technology.

Discusses food safety data sources and identifies foodborne pathogens. Cropper, M.L. and Freeman, III, A.M. 1991. Environmental health effects, in Measuring the Demand for Environmental Quality (J.B. Braden and C.D. Kolstad, eds.). Amsterdam: North-Holland.

An overview of economic approaches to valuing health and safety in a general context.

Crutchfield. S„ Buzby, J.C., Roberts, T„ Ollinger, M„ and Lin, C.-T.J. July 1997. An economic assessment of food safety regulations: The new approach to meat and poultry inspection. USDA, Econ. Res. Serv., AER-755. An example of a benefit-cost analysis for the control of foodborne pathogens.


Lichtenberg, E. and Zilberman, D. 1988a. Efficient regulation of environmental health risks. Quart. J. Econ. 49:167-178.

Economic implications of handling uncertainty about risk to health and safety in ways prescribed by legislation and safety engineering practice. Shogren, J.F., Fox, J.A., Hayes, D.J., and J. Roosen. 1999. Observed choices for food safety in retail, survey, and auction markets. Am. J. Agric. Econ 81,5:1192-99. Discusses the willingness to pay for microbial food safety with three valuation methods.

Van Ravenswaay, E.O., and Bylenga, S.A. Spring 1991. Enforcing food safety standards: a case study of antibiotic and sulfa drug residues in veal. J. Agribusiness. 9,1:39-53.

Examines the implicit economic incentives in a federal regulation. Viscusi, W.K. 1993. The value of risks to life and health. J. Econ. Lit. 31:1912-46. Reviews and evaluates different economic studies of risk in the labor market.


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC): The Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, Emerging Infectious Diseases, and additional information about public health aspects of foodborne diseases is available at http:¡¡www.cdc.govj

Codex Alimentarius Commission: Information about the Codex Alimentarius and the Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Program is available at httpflwww. codexalimentarius. net

Economic Research Service (ERS), USDA: Information about the economic cost of foodborne illness, benefit-cost analysis of HACCP, and other economic food safety issues is available at http:Hwww.ers.usda.gorjEmphasesjSafeFoocl.

FDA Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN): Information about FDA food safety activities, plus the Bad Bug Book providing descriptions of individual foodborne pathogens is available at http:llwww.cfsan.fda.govllist.html

Fight BAC!™ Partnership for Food Safety Education: Information about foodborne illness for consumers and links to other relevant web sites are available at httpfl www.fightbac. orgj

Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS), USDA: Consumer information, regulations and recalls, HACCP models, etc. at http:jjwww.fsis. usda.govjOAjwhatsnew. htm

FoodNet CDC/USDA/FDA Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network: Background information and recent results from FoodNet are available (via the CDC website) at httpfjwww.cdc.govjfoodnetj

Food Safety Consortium (University of Arkansas, Iowa State University, and Kansas State University): Newsletter, list of research projects, and links to other relevant web sites are available at http:jjwww.uark.edujdcptslfscj

FSNet: Daily listserve summarizing international media coverage, government announcements, and press releases about food safety issues produced by Dr. Doug Powell, Dept. of Plant Agriculture, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada. To subscribe to FSnet, send mail to: [email protected]. (Leave subject line blank. In the body of the message type: subscribe fsnet-L firstname lastname, e.g., subscribe fsnet-L Doug Powell.) International Food Information Council (IFIC): Information about food safety and other food-related issues is available at: http:Hwww.ific. org/food/safety Joint Institute for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (JIFSAN) (FDA and University of Maryland): Information about research program and funding opportunities is available at: National Academy of Sciences (NAS): The recently released NAS report on Ensuring Safe Food: From Production to Consumption can be ordered at a 20% discount at http.jlwww.nas.edul [Click on (1) Institute of Medicine, and then on (2) Recently Released Reports.]

National Alliance for Food Safety (NAFS): Partnership among universities and federal agencies to conduct research, set priorities, educate food handlers, and foster scientific debate at NE-165, Private Strategies, Public Policies, and Food System Performance: Does research on the impacts of changes in strategies, technologies, consumer behavior, and policies on the economic performance of the food system, and on how private and public strategies influence improvement in food safety and other quality attributes. It has over 100 members around the world, primarily from universities and government agencies, and a core research group at the Food Marketing Policy Center, Universities of Connecticut and Massachusetts. Its web site is http.jlwww. umass. edu/ne]65l.

U.S. Government food safety site: Gateway to federal government food safety information with links to sites by CDC, EPA, FDA, and FSIS at

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