Voltage (V) is the only known parameter in many cases of electrical injury (142,143,145,149). Electrical injuries are arbitrarily divided into low- (<1000 V) and high-voltage (38,141,142,145,147,152,158,163). The greater the voltage, the more extensive the injury, but a 110-V household current still has sufficient current to cause ventricular fibrillation (144,158). Thermal effects are an important mechanism of injury or death in high-voltage electrocution (140). Household voltage depends on the locale: 120 V (United States and Canada), 220 V (Europe), or 240 V (Australia, United Kingdom [139,140,144, 147,179]). Workplace tools and machines may be connected to 220- to 440-V power sources (147). Electrical lines involve thousands of volts. Lightning is associated with a voltage difference of millions of volts between the clouds and ground (143,164,167,176,180).
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