Pedal Evidence and Forensic Considerations

The crime scene often involves serologic evidence, such as blood. A gait pattern may be visible in the blood, showing either a bare or socked foot. Many variations may present themselves at one crime scene a full print of one or both feet or a partial print of, for instance, the forefoot area of one foot and the heel of the other. Some factors to be considered (again, depending on their presentation and the abilities of the evaluator) include step length, stride length, and foot plant. If there...

Other Diseases That Mimic Traumatic Injury

Hot Hot Forensic

Epidermolysis bullosa EB is a form of genodermatosis genetic disorder of the skin that is characterized by sloughing of the dermal layers secondary to minimal trauma. EB is caused by a defect in collagen synthesis and occurs as a dominant or Fig. 1. Epidermolysis bullosa mimics scalded skin from a hot liquid in this infant. The distribution of this disease mimics injury patterns that are usually found in children struggling to get away from the heat source. A bulla blister is also seen on the...

Soft Tissue Injuries

Decollement Trauma

Pedestrian- or cyclist-to-car hits usually cause extensive bruises and the crushing of deeper tissues, which can be detected within the organ by ultrasound and on autopsy only after extensive removal of the skin of the back and the entire circumference of extremities and deep-muscle incisions. In many cases, the location of bruises allows the investigator to determine the direction of impact and in hit-and-run accidents may also help the investigator determine the type of vehicle responsible...

Child Abuse

Butterfly Fracture Direction

Child abuse 35,36 results in traumatic injuries from being beaten, shaken, burned, thrown, purposefully dropped, or subjected to other physical assault. Although children may suffer abuse for many years, the most common age of occurrence is before 5 yr. Abuse-related fractures are most frequently seen in children younger than 12 to 18 mo 37-40 . The age distribution is significant, because children in this age range are less Fig. 5. Angulation butterfly fracture of the left femur, with...

Determination of Stature

Heel Pad Thickness Measurement Xray

Extensive research on World War II and Korean War casualties 32 has enabled investigators to develop methods of estimating stature based on measurements of long bones. The length of the femur is the most reliable basis for calculating stature 28 . The tibia is also useful, but there has been some controversy over the accuracy of tibial measurements, particularly the most appropriate location of the more distal measuring point. Apparently, the plafond of the tibia is the preferred site of...

Patterns of Torture and Terrorism

Physical beating is a widespread form of torture 56 . Palmatoria is a form of localized torture virtually unique to the small West African country Guinea-Bissau. Palmatoria involve repetitive blows by a slender rod to the shin, where the tibia lies closest beneath the skin. Ordinary radiographs of somewhat limited quality have shown a periosteal reaction, presumably as a result of subperiosteal hemorrhage and hematoma. Somewhat peculiar endosteal and medullary changes have also been seen Fig....

Positioning

Periosteal Reaction Fracture

Standard radiographic positions for the lower extremity are required in order to match features on antemortem radiographs 68 . Figures 89 through 96 provide information that can be used to determine how to position the body part and central beam of the X-ray for each standard position. Each positioning photo is accompanied by a sample of the image to be expected from it. Fig. 44. Old periosteal new bone around the distal femur from earlier trauma arrows . Reprinted from ref. 42 with permission...

References

Forensic anthropology and crimes involving children. J Forensic Sci 1976 21 333-339. 2. Ubelaker DH. Methodological considerations in the forensic applications of human skeletal biology. In Biological anthropology of the human skeleton. Katzenberg MA, Saunders SR, eds. New York, NY Wiley-Liss, 2000 pp. 41-67. 3. Bass WM. Human osteology a laboratory and field manual. 3rd ed. Columbia, Mo Missouri Archaeological Society, Inc., 1987. 4. Krogman WM, Iscan MY. The human skeleton in...

Introduction and Historical Review

Sloan Ray Tube

While the field of forensic medicine is said to have begun at some indefinite time five or six centuries ago, the origins of forensic radiology can be described more precisely. Wilhem Conrad R ntgen Fig. 1 professor of physics, director of the Physics Institute, and Rector of the University of W rzburg observed an unusual phenomenon while experimenting with cathode ray tubes on November 8, 1895. After 50 d of intensive investigation, he determined that he had discovered a new kind of ray eine...

Forensically Significant Skeletal Anatomy

Nutrient Foramina

Dean, md Forensically significant cases are those in which remains are recovered that have come from humans who died violently or unexpectedly, or for which the cause of death or manner of death is potentially a legal or otherwise significant issue this may exclude very old or prehistoric remains . This text discusses the subset of forensically significant remains that are partially or completely decomposed, fragmented, or unidentified. This chapter is not...

Bony Landmarks Femur And Tibia

Femur Inferior View

The femur is the longest bone of the human body. It consists of a rounded proximal head that articulates with the acetabulum at the hip, a nearly cylindrical shaft, and a distal metaphysis that forms two large rounded condyles that articulate with the tibia. Forensic Medicine of the Lower Extremity Human Identification and Trauma Analysis Edited by J. Rich, D. E. Dean, and R. H. Powers The Humana Press Inc., Totowa, NJ Fig. 1. Anterior femur A Anterior view of the entire femur B The distal...