The book begins with an overview and history of DNA and its use in human identification. An actual criminal investigation where DNA evidence proved crucial is used to illustrate the value of this technology to law enforcement. Chapter 2 provides some basic information on DNA structure and function while Chapter 3 covers the processes involved in preparing samples for DNA amplification via the polymerase chain reaction, which is discussed further in Chapter 4. Chapter 5 focuses on the 13 commonly used STR markers in the United States today with details about naming of alleles and unique characteristics of each marker. Chapter 6 goes into the biology of STR markers including stutter products, non-template addition, microvariants, and null alleles. These aspects can complicate data interpretation if they are not understood properly. Chapter 7 discusses issues that are unique to the forensic DNA community, namely mixtures, degraded DNA samples, PCR inhibition, and contamination, all of which impact forensic casework since many samples do not come from a pristine, controlled environment. What was previously Chapter 8 in the first edition that discussed additional markers used in conjunction with STRs to aid in human identification has now been expanded upon in four additional chapters. The new Chapter 8 covers single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and technologies for typing them. Chapter 9 reviews Y chromosome markers for specifically identifying the male contributor of a sample and Chapter 10 discusses maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA, the use of which often provides results in situations involving highly degraded DNA. Finally, we touch on the use of non-human DNA to aid forensic investigations in Chapter 11 through a discussion of animal, plant, and microbial DNA testing.
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Discover Simple Techniques to Help Control Your Stutter. Stuttering is annoying and embarrassing. If you or a member of your family stutters, you already know the impact it can have on your everyday life. Stuttering interferes with communication, and can make social situations very difficult. It can even be harmful to your school or business life.