Following collection of biological material from a crime scene or paternity investigation, the DNA is first extracted from its biological source material and

Figure 1.2

Overview of biology, technology, and genetic components of DNA typing using short tandem repeat (STR) markers.

Sample Obtained from Crime Scene or Paternity Investigation


DNA Extraction

DNA Quantitation

PCR Amplification of Multiple STR markers


Separation and Detection of PCR Products (STR Alleles)

Sample Genotype Determination


Comparison of Sample Genotype to Other Sample Results

Generation of Case Report with Probability of Random Match

If match occurs, comparison of DNA profile to population databases then measured to evaluate the quantity of DNA recovered (Chapter 3). After isolating the DNA from its cells, specific regions are copied with a technique known as the polymerase chain reaction, or PCR (Chapter 4). PCR produces millions of copies for each DNA segment of interest and thus permits very minute amounts of DNA to be examined. Multiple STR regions can be examined simultaneously to increase the informativeness of the DNA test (Chapter 5).

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Discover Simple Techniques to Help Control Your Stutter. Stuttering is annoying and embarrassing. If you or a member of your family stutters, you already know the impact it can have on your everyday life. Stuttering interferes with communication, and can make social situations very difficult. It can even be harmful to your school or business life.

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