In some cases, such as a fingernail scrapping, a missing persons investigation, or a mass disaster reconstruction scenario, results from both Y-STR loci and a limited number of autosomal loci may be obtained. The question might then be asked can this information be combined to increase the rarity of a match since the autosomal data by itself may not be satisfactory? While this is a relatively new area and has not been investigated in detail yet, Sinha et al. (2004) reason that multiplication of the autosomal STR locus profile frequency obtained following the NRC II recommendations (see Appendix VI) and the Y-STR haplotype frequency obtained with a minimal frequency threshold and correction for sampling (as demonstrated in the previous example) is still conservative based on lack of dependence between Y-STR loci and biological independence of chromosomes. Those interested in a detailed discussion of the theoretical issues between joint match probabilities for Y-STRs and autosomal markers should consult a manuscript by Bruce Walsh from the University of Arizona (see http://nitro.biosci.arizona.edu/zdownload/current_ms/ Y-autosomal.pdf).
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