Commercial Ystr Kits Available

Forensic scientists rely heavily on commercially available kits to perform DNA testing (see Chapter 5). Thus, many laboratories especially in the U.S. have been reluctant to move into Y-STR typing until Y-STR kits were offered. The first kit was Y-PLEX™ 6 from ReliaGene Technologies (New Orleans, LA), which co-amplifies DYS19, DYS389II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS393, and DYS385 a/b (Figure 9.6). Table 9.3 lists the kits that were available as of June 2004 and the loci that they amplify. Kits that enable a single amplification of all the minimal haplotype and SWGDAM recommended loci are now available.

ReliaGene Technologies sells the Y-PLEX™ 12 kit, which amplifies the SWGDAM recommended loci plus the amelogenin marker (see Chapter 5). Inclusion of amelogenin enables confirmation that the PCR reaction has not failed on female DNA samples since a single X amplicon will result. In addition, mixture levels of male and female DNA can be confirmed with the amelogenin X and Y peak height ratios (see Chapter 7). While the amelogenin primers provide a measure of quality control on PCR amplifications, they have the disadvantage of possibly tying up and consuming PCR reagents when high levels of female DNA are present in a mixture. Shewale et al. (2003b) found that male-female mixtures down to 1:400 still resulted in the male component amplifying at the Y-STR loci.

PCR product size (in nucleotides relative to GS500 ROX)

BR

100

125 150 175 200 225 250 275 300 325 350 375 400

8000 7000 6000 5000 4000. 3000. 2000. 1000. 0

DYS393

. .

_________JJ

A

Figure 9.6 Result from the commercial Y-STR kit Y-PLEX™ 6.

Kit Name (Source)

Release Date

Dye Color Loci Amplified Arranged by Size

(ReliaGene Technologies) Y-PLEX™ 5

(ReliaGene Technologies)

genRES® DYSplex-1 (Serac, GERMANY)

genRES® DYSplex-2 (Serac, GERMANY)

(ReliaGene Technologies)

PowerPlex® Y (Promega Corporation)

MenPlex® Argus Y-MH (Biotype, GERMANY)

(Applied Biosystems)

January 2001 July 2002

2002 2002

September 2003

October 2003

January 2004 Fall 2004

DYS393, DYS19, DYS389II DYS390, DYS391, DYS385a/b

DYS389I, DYS389II DYS439

DYS438, DYS392

DYS390, DYS39I, DYS385 a/b Amelogenin, DYS5389 I/II

DYS392, DYS393 DYS19, DYS389 I/II

DYS392, DYS390, DYS385 a/b DYS393, DYS389I, DYS391, DYS389II Amelogenin, DYS19, DYS439, DYS438

DYS391, DYS389I, DYS439, DYS389II DYS438, DYS437, DYS19, DYS392 DYS393, DYS390, DYS385 a/b

DYS393, DYS390, DYS385 a/b

DYS391, DYS19, DYS389I, DYS392, DYS389II

DYS456, DYS389I, DYS390, DYS389II DYS458, DYS19, DYS385a/b DYS393, DYS391, DYS439, C4, DYS392 H4, DYS437, DYS438, DYS448

Table 9.3

Commercially available Y-STR hits. Characteristics of each locus may be found in Table 9.2. An internal size standard is typically run in the fourth or fifth dye position on multi-color fluorescence detection systems for allele sizing purposes. Dye colors = Blue (B), Green (G), Yellow (Y), or Red (R). The underlined loci, such as DYS437present in the PowerPlex Y hit, are not part of the minimal haplotype or SWGDAM recommended loci.

A major advantage in having commercial Y-STR kits is the availability of common allelic ladders. These allelic ladders provide a consistent currency that aids in quality assurance of results as well as compatibility of results going into DNA databases. The allelic ladders for the DYS385 locus with the Y-PLEX 12 and PowerPlex Y kits are shown in Figure 9.7. As was noted in Chapter 5 with autosomal STR markers, various kits differ with the alleles present in their ladders. Hence the ability to reliably call a DYS385 allele 23 is greater with the PowerPlex Y ladder since this rare allele is present in PowerPlex Y but outside the range of the Y-PLEX 12 ladder rungs.

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Responses

  • Ollie
    When were the first ystr kits released?
    4 months ago

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